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      Defects in Macrophage Recruitment and Host Defense in Mice Lacking the CCR2 Chemokine Receptor

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          Chemokines are a structurally related family of cytokines that are important for leukocyte trafficking. The C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent monocyte activator in vitro and has been associated with monocytic infiltration in several inflammatory diseases. One C-C chemokine receptor, CCR2, has been identified that mediates in vitro responses to MCP-1 and its close structural homologues. CCR2 has also recently been demonstrated to be a fusion cofactor for several HIV isolates. To investigate the normal physiological function of CCR2, we generated mice with a targeted disruption of the ccr2 gene. Mice deficient for CCR2 developed normally and had no hematopoietic abnormalities. However, ccr2 −/− mice failed to recruit macrophages in an experimental peritoneal inflammation model. In addition, these mice were unable to clear infection by the intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes. These results suggest that CCR2 has a nonredundant role as a major mediator of macrophage recruitment and host defense against bacterial pathogens and that MCP-1 and other CCR2 ligands are effectors of those functions.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Change in Coreceptor Use Correlates with Disease Progression in HIV-1–Infected Individuals

          Recent studies have identified several coreceptors that are required for fusion and entry of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) into CD4+ cells. One of these receptors, CCR5, serves as a coreceptor for nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1, while another, fusin or CXCR-4, functions as a coreceptor for T cell line–adapted, syncytiuminducing (SI) strains. Using sequential primary isolates of HIV-1, we examined whether viruses using these coreceptors emerge in vivo and whether changes in coreceptor use are associated with disease progression. We found that isolates of HIV-1 from early in the course of infection predominantly used CCR5 for infection. However, in patients with disease progression, the virus expanded its coreceptor use to include CCR5, CCR3, CCR2b, and CXCR-4. Use of CXCR-4 as a coreceptor was only seen with primary viruses having an SI phenotype and was restricted by the env gene of the virus. The emergence of variants using this coreceptor was associated with a switch from NSI to SI phenotype, loss of sensitivity to chemokines, and decreasing CD4+ T cell counts. These results suggest that HIV-1 evolves during the course of infection to use an expanded range of coreceptors for infection, and that this adaptation is associated with progression to AIDS.
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            Immune response in mice that lack the interferon-gamma receptor.

            Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) exerts pleiotropic effects, including antiviral activity, stimulation of macrophages and natural killer cells, and increased expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens. Mice without the IFN-gamma receptor had no overt anomalies, and their immune system appeared to develop normally. However, mutant mice had a defective natural resistance, they had increased susceptibility to infection by Listeria monocytogenes and vaccinia virus despite normal cytotoxic and T helper cell responses. Immunoglobulin isotype analysis revealed that IFN-gamma is necessary for a normal antigen-specific immunoglobulin G2a response. These mutant mice offer the possibility for the further elucidation of IFN-gamma-mediated functions by transgenic cell- or tissue-specific reconstitution of a functional receptor.
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              Properties of the novel proinflammatory supergene "intercrine" cytokine family.

              A family consisting of at least ten distinct novel 8-10 kd cytokines has been identified over the past 12 years. These cytokines exhibit from 20 to 45% homology in amino acid sequence, are probably all basic heparin-binding polypeptides, and have proinflammatory and reparative activities. The cDNA for these cytokines are characterized by conserved single open reading frames, typical signal sequences in the 5' region, and AT rich sequences in the 3' untranslated regions. Those human cytokines known as interleukin 8, platelet factor 4, beta thromboglobulin, IP-10 and melanoma growth stimulating factor or GRO can be assigned to a subfamily based on their location on chromosome 4 and unique structural features, whereas the second subset consisting of LD78, ACT-2, I-309, RANTES, and macrophage chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) are all closely linked on human chromosome 17. In this review we have summarized and discussed the available information concerning the regulation and structure of the genes, the structure and biochemical properties of the polypeptide products, their receptors, signal transduction, cell sources, and in vitro as well as in vivo activities of these cytokines.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Med
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                17 November 1997
                : 186
                : 10
                : 1757-1762
                From the Department of [* ]Oncology and []Experimental Pathology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000; and the [§ ]Department of Microbiology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492-7660
                Author notes

                Address correspondence to Rodrigo Bravo, Department of Oncology Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute P.O. Box 4000, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000. Phone: (609) 252-5744; Fax: (609) 252-6051.

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