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      An updated checklist of the bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophila) of Pennsylvania, United States of America

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          Abstract

          Checklists provide information about the species found in a defined region and serve as baselines for detecting species range expansions, contractions, or introductions. Bees are a diverse and important group of insect pollinators. Although some bee populations are declining, these patterns are difficult to document and generalize due to a lack of long-term studies for most localities. Documenting the diversity of wild bee communities is critical for assessing pollination services, community ecology, and geographical and temporal changes in distribution and density. Here, an updated checklist of the bees of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, USA, is presented. Since the first checklist was published (2010; 372 species), thousands of additional specimens from the state have been collected and databased, new species have been described in the region, and the taxonomic status of some species have changed. Specimen data from insect collections, databases, scientific literature, and unpublished records were compared to the original checklist. Seventy-nine new state species records – including 49 first-time reports – representing five of the six bee families in North America, were documented resulting in a total of at least 437 bee species reported from Pennsylvania. We highlight new county records and species persistence details. Our list includes a total of 23 exotic species and at least five species of conservation concern. Lists of species excluded from the state checklist and species anticipated to occur in Pennsylvania are also included. This checklist provides baseline data for researchers and the public. The benefits of insect collections, specimen databases, determination and voucher labels, and georeferencing to biodiversity studies and other aspects of biological research are also discussed.

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          ggmap: Spatial Visualization with ggplot2

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            Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits.

            Pollinators such as bees are essential to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. However, despite concerns about a global pollinator crisis, long-term data on the status of bee species are limited. We present a long-term study of relative rates of change for an entire regional bee fauna in the northeastern United States, based on >30,000 museum records representing 438 species. Over a 140-y period, aggregate native species richness weakly decreased, but richness declines were significant only for the genus Bombus. Of 187 native species analyzed individually, only three declined steeply, all of these in the genus Bombus. However, there were large shifts in community composition, as indicated by 56% of species showing significant changes in relative abundance over time. Traits associated with a declining relative abundance include small dietary and phenological breadth and large body size. In addition, species with lower latitudinal range boundaries are increasing in relative abundance, a finding that may represent a response to climate change. We show that despite marked increases in human population density and large changes in anthropogenic land use, aggregate native species richness declines were modest outside of the genus Bombus. At the same time, we find that certain ecological traits are associated with declines in relative abundance. These results should help target conservation efforts focused on maintaining native bee abundance and diversity and therefore the important ecosystems services that they provide.
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              Declines of managed honey bees and beekeepers in Europe

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                June 29 2020
                June 29 2020
                : 77
                : 1-86
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.77.49622
                © 2020

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