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      Treatment Outcomes of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-Associated Vasculitis in Patients Over Age 75 Years: A Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background: The benefits of treating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) in advancing age remains unclear with most published studies defining elderly as ≥65 years. This study aims to determine outcomes of induction immunosuppression in patients aged ≥75 years. Methods: A cohort of patients aged ≥75 years with a diagnosis of AAV between 2006 and 2018 was constructed from 2 centres. Follow-up was to 2 years or death. Analysis included multivariable Cox regression to compare mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on receipt of induction immunosuppression therapy with either cyclophosphamide or rituximab. A systematic review of outcome studies was subsequently undertaken amongst this patient group through Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase databases from inception until October 16, 2019. Results: Sixty-seven patients were identified. Mean age was 79 ± 2.9 years and 82% ( n = 55) received induction immunosuppression. Following systematic review, 4 studies were eligible for inclusion, yielding a combined total of 290 patients inclusive of our cohort. The aggregated 1-year mortality irrespective of treatment was 31% (95% CI 25–36%). Within our cohort, induction immunosuppression therapy was associated with a significantly lower 2-year mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 0.29 [95% CI 0.09–0.93]). The pooled HR by meta-analysis confirmed this with a significant risk reduction for death (HR 0.31 [95% CI 0.16–0.57], I<sup>2</sup> = 0%). Treated patients had a lower pooled rate of ESRD, but was not statistically significant (HR 0.71 [95% CI 0.15–3.35]). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that patients ≥75 years with AAV do benefit from induction immunosuppression with a significant survival benefit. Age alone should not be a limiting factor when considering treatment.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          2020
          April 2020
          11 March 2020
          : 51
          : 4
          : 327-336
          Affiliations
          aRenal Medicine, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, United Kingdom
          bDepartment of Immunology, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston, United Kingdom
          cSchool of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom
          dDepartment of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
          Author notes
          *Dr. Adam Morris, Department of Nephrology, Royal Preston Hospital, Lancashire NHS Foundation Trust, Sharoe Green Lane, Fulwood, Preston PR2 9HT (UK), E-Mail Adam.Morris@lthtr.nhs.uk
          Article
          506532 Am J Nephrol 2020;51:327–335
          10.1159/000506532
          32160625
          © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 9
          Categories
          Patient-Oriented, Translational Research: Research Article

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