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      Effective Range of Percutaneous Posterior Full-Endoscopic Paramedian Cervical Disc Herniation Discectomy and Indications for Patient Selection

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          The objective was to investigate the effective and safe range of paramedian CDH by percutaneous posterior full-endoscopy cervical intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus resection (PPFECD) to provide a reference for indications and patient selection. Sixteen patients with CDH satisfied the inclusion criteria. Before surgery the patients underwent cervical spine MRI, and the distance between the dural sac and herniated disc was measured. An assessment was performed by MRI immediately after surgery, measuring the distance between dural sac and medial border of discectomy (DSMD). The preoperative average distance between the dural sac and peak of the herniated disc (DSPHD) was 3.87 ± 1.32 mm; preoperative average distance between dural sac and medial border of herniated disc (DSMHD) was 6.91 ± 1.21 mm and an average distance of postoperative DSMD was 5.41 ± 1.40 mm. Postoperative VAS of neck and shoulder pain was significantly decreased but JOA was significantly increased in each time point compared with preoperative ones. In summary, the effective range of PPFECD to treat paramedian CDH was 5.41 ± 1.40 mm, indicating that DSMHD and DSPHD were within 6.91 ± 1.21 mm and 3.87 ± 1.32 mm, respectively. PPFECD surgery is, therefore, a safe and effective treatment option for patients with partial paramedian cervical disc herniation.

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          Complications and mortality associated with cervical spine surgery for degenerative disease in the United States.

          Retrospective cohort. To describe the incidence of complications and mortality associated with surgery for degenerative disease of the cervical spine using population-based data. To evaluate the associations between complications and mortality and age, primary diagnosis and type of surgical procedure. Recent studies have shown an increase in the number of cervical spine surgeries performed for degenerative disease in the United States. However, the associations between complications and mortality and age, primary diagnosis and type of surgical procedure are not well described using population-based data. We created an algorithm defining degenerative cervical spine disease and associated complications using the International Classification of Diseases-ninth revision Clinical Modification codes. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we determined the primary diagnoses, surgical procedures, and associated in-hospital complications and mortality from 1992 to 2001. From 1992 to 2001, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample included an estimated 932,009 (0.3%) hospital discharges associated with cervical spine surgery for degenerative disease. The majority of admissions were for herniated disc (56%) and cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (19%). Complications and mortality were more common in the elderly, and after posterior fusions or surgical procedures associated with a primary diagnosis of cervical spondylosis with myelopathy. There are significant differences in outcome associated with age, primary diagnosis, and type of surgical procedure. Administrative databases may underestimate the incidence of complications, but these population-based studies may provide information for comparison with surgical case series and help evaluate rare or severe complications.
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            Full-endoscopic cervical posterior foraminotomy for the operation of lateral disc herniations using 5.9-mm endoscopes: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

            Prospective, randomized, controlled study of patients with lateral cervical disc herniations, operated either in a full-endoscopic posterior or conventional microsurgical anterior technique. Comparison of results of cervical discectomies in full-endoscopic posterior foraminotomy technique with the conventional microsurgical anterior decompression and fusion. Anterior cervical decompression and fusion is the standard procedure for operation of cervical disc herniations with radicular arm pain. Mobility-preserving posterior foraminotomy is the most common alternative in the case of lateral localization of the pathology. Despite good clinical results, problems may arise due to traumatization of the access. Endoscopic techniques are considered standard in many areas, since they may offer advantages in surgical technique and rehabilitation. These days, all disc herniations of the lumbar spine can be operated in full-endoscopic technique. With the full-endoscopic posterior cervical foraminotomy a procedures is available for cervical disc operations. One hundred and seventy-five patients with full-endoscopic posterior or microsurgical anterior cervical discectomy underwent follow-up for 2 years. In addition to general and specific parameters, the following measuring instruments were used: VAS, German version North American Spine Society Instrument, Hilibrand Criteria. After surgery 87.4% of the patients no longer had arm pain, and 9.2% had occasional pain. The clinical results were the same in both groups. There were no significant difference between the groups in the revision or complication rate. The full-endoscopic technique brought advantages in operation technique, preserving mobility, rehabilitation, and traumatization. The recorded results show that the full-endoscopic posterior foraminotomy is a sufficient and safe supplement and alternative to conventional procedures when the indication criteria are fulfilled. At the same time, it offers the advantages of a minimally invasive intervention.
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              Visual analog scales for interpretation of back and leg pain intensity in patients operated for degenerative lumbar spine disorders.

              A prospective observational study of visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain in patients operated at one institution within the framework of a national registry. To describe the use of recording VAS for pain intensity in patients operated on for lumbar spine problems. There is no consensus regarding pain outcomes assessment in spine patients. Pain intensity, recorded on a VAS, is one of the most used measures. Still, many aspects of its interpretation are still debated or unclear. A total of 755 consecutive patients, mean age 50 years (range, 15-86 years), operated from 1993 to 1998 were included in the study; there were 420 males and 335 females. Diagnoses included herniated nucleus pulposus (45%), central stenosis (19%), lateral stenosis (14%), isthmic spondylolisthesis (9%), and degenerative disc disease (9%). Local pain, radiating pain, analgesic intake, and walking ability were recorded before surgery and at 4 and 12 months after surgery. The patients' opinions regarding the change in pain and satisfaction with the result were assessed separately. Correlation among variables reflecting perceived pain was sought. Preoperative VAS mean values for local and radiating pain were significantly different in the five diagnostic groups. Significant but moderate correlation between different types of pain outcomes and with patient satisfaction was present in all cases. Measuring pain intensity with VAS is a useful tool in describing spine patients. In the search for a standard in the evaluation of pain as an outcome, the differences between the various methods should be taken into account.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                26 October 2017
                : 2017
                1Department of Spinal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi, Guizhou 563000, China
                2Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
                3Academy of Orthopedics of Guangdong Province, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510630, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Francesco Doglietto

                Copyright © 2017 Hongquan Wen et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Doctoral Science Research Start-Up Funding of the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University
                Award ID: 2017-01
                Research Article


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