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      Enhancing Flame Retardancy, Thermal Stability, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Foam with Polyphosphate Modified Expandable Graphite and Ammonium Polyphosphate

      1 , , 1, , 2 , * , 1

      International Polymer Processing

      Carl Hanser Verlag

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          The method of preparing polyolefin foam with good flame retardancy, thermal stability, and physical and mechanical properties was investigated. Foaming condition of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated with triphenyl phosphate (TPP) as plasticizer, NaHCO 3 as foaming agent. The influence of modified expandable graphite (EG P) and ammonium polyphosphate (II) on foam density, compression strength, combustion characteristics and thermal stability was explored. Results verified that EG P presented better dilatability and flame retardancy than the normal expandable graphite. Addition of EG p improved the limiting oxygen index (LOI) of 15NaHCO 3/100 LLDPE TPP/30EG p foam from 18.8% to 24.6%. Furthermore, the combination of EG p and ammonium polyphosphate (II) (APP) at the mass ratio of 2:1 improved the LOI of 15NaHCO 3/100 LLDPE TPP/20EG p/10APP sample to 27.9%, and the vertical burning UL-94 level reached V-0, indicating that this material was flame retardant. Although these additives made 15NaHCO 3/100 LLDPE TPP/20EG p/10APP composite exhibit a high density of 142.5 kg m −3, which was increased by 12.3 wt% relative to the 15NaHCO 3/100 LLDPE TPP foam, it could improve the compressive strength to 0.4747 MPa, which was about 2.7 times that of the matrix. The thermal stability of the material was also enhanced.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Phosphorus flame retardants: properties, production, environmental occurrence, toxicity and analysis.

          Since the ban on some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs), which were responsible for 20% of the flame retardant (FR) consumption in 2006 in Europe, are often proposed as alternatives for BFRs. PFRs can be divided in three main groups, inorganic, organic and halogen containing PFRs. Most of the PFRs have a mechanism of action in the solid phase of burning materials (char formation), but some may also be active in the gas phase. Some PFRs are reactive FRs, which means they are chemically bound to a polymer, whereas others are additive and mixed into the polymer. The focus of this report is limited to the PFRs mentioned in the literature as potential substitutes for BFRs. The physico-chemical properties, applications and production volumes of PFRs are given. Non-halogenated PFRs are often used as plasticisers as well. Limited information is available on the occurrence of PFRs in the environment. For triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), tricresylphosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(chloropropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP), and tetrekis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6) a number of studies have been performed on their occurrence in air, water and sediment, but limited data were found on their occurrence in biota. Concentrations found for these PFRs in air were up to 47 μg m(-3), in sediment levels up to 24 mg kg(-1) were found, and in surface water concentrations up to 379 ng L(-1). In all these matrices TCPP was dominant. Concentrations found in dust were up to 67 mg kg(-1), with TDCPP being the dominant PFR. PFR concentrations reported were often higher than polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) concentrations, and the human exposure due to PFR concentrations in indoor air appears to be higher than exposure due to PBDE concentrations in indoor air. Only the Cl-containing PFRs are carcinogenic. Other negative human health effects were found for Cl-containing PFRs as well as for TCP, which suggest that those PFRs would not be suitable alternatives for BFRs. TPhP, diphenylcresylphosphate (DCP) and TCP would not be suitable alternatives either, because they are considered to be toxic to (aquatic) organisms. Diethylphosphinic acid is, just like TCEP, considered to be very persistent. From an environmental perspective, resorcinol-bis(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), bisphenol-A diphenyl phosphate (BADP) and melamine polyphosphate, may be suitable good substitutes for BFRs. Information on PFR analysis in air, water and sediment is limited to TCEP, TCPP, TPhP, TCP and some other organophosphate esters. For air sampling passive samplers have been used as well as solid phase extraction (SPE) membranes, SPE cartridges, and solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). For extraction of PFRs from water SPE is recommended, because this method gives good recoveries (67-105%) and acceptable relative standard deviations (RSDs) (<20%), and offers the option of on-line coupling with a detection system. For the extraction of PFRs from sediment microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is recommended. The recoveries (78-105%) and RSDs (3-8%) are good and the method is faster and requires less solvent compared to other methods. For the final instrumental analysis of PFRs, gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD), GC-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD), GC-atomic emission detection (AED), GC-mass spectrometry (MS) as well as liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS and GC-Inductively-coupled plasma-MS (ICP-MS) are used. GC-ICP-MS is a promising method, because it provides much less complex chromatograms while offering the same recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) (instrumental LOD is 5-10 ng mL(-1)) compared to GC-NPD and GC-MS, which are frequently used methods for PFR analysis. GC-MS offers a higher selectivity than GC-NPD and the possibility of using isotopically labeled compounds for quantification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment

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              Synergism and catalysis in flame retardancy of polymers


                Author and article information

                International Polymer Processing
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                29 April 2019
                : 34
                : 2
                : 239-247
                1 College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, PRC
                2 Flame Retardant Material and Processing Technology Engineering Technology Research Center of Hebei Province, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Hebei University, Baoding, PRC
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence address, Mail address: Xiuyan Pang, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Hezuo Road No. 180, Baoding, 071002, PRC, E-mail: pxy833@ 123456163.com
                © 2019, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich
                Page count
                References: 30, Pages: 9
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/loi/ipp
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