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      Relationships between Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation, Serum Vitamin E and Plasma Isoprostane 8-Iso-PGF Levels in Healthy Subjects

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          Abstract

          Due to the reported associations between a low intake of vitamin E and atherosclerosis on one hand, and between endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis on the other hand, we investigated the relationship between endothelium-dependent vasodilation and serum levels of vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) as well as the lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde and 8-iso-PGF<sub>2α</sub> in a healthy population. Healthy subjects (31 men and 25 women), aged between 20 and 69 years, underwent measurements of forearm blood flow (FBF) at rest and during local infusion of 2 and 4 μg/min of methacholine (Mch, to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and 5 and 10 μg/min of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, to evaluate endothelium-independent vasodilation, and during reactive hyperemia using venous occlusion plethysmography. Serum α-tocopherol concentration was significantly related to the index of endothelial function (r = 0.46, p < 0.01), defined as the ratio between the maximal dilatations during Mch and SNP infusions. Serum γ-tocopherol levels were positively related to the maximal FBF during reactive hyperemia (r = 0.54, p < 0.01) in women only. Furthermore, in women only, plasma 8-iso-PGF<sub>2α</sub> levels were inversely related to the relative increases in FBF during both Mch and SNP infusions (r = –0.58 and r = –0.59, p < 0.01 for both). The results show a relationship between the levels of α-tocopherol and endothelial vasodilatory function, suggesting a beneficial role for this potent lipid-soluble antioxidant also in a population sample of apparently healthy subjects. Furthermore, in women, the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products such as 8-iso-PGF<sub>2α</sub> seems to be associated with an impaired vasodilation in general.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men.

          The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins increases their incorporation into the arterial intima, an essential step in atherogenesis. Although dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E, have been hypothesized to prevent coronary heart disease, prospective epidemiologic data are sparse. In 1986, 39,910 U.S. male health professionals 40 to 75 years of age who were free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia completed detailed dietary questionnaires that assessed their usual intake of vitamin C, carotene, and vitamin E in addition to other nutrients. During four years of follow-up, we documented 667 cases of coronary disease. After controlling for age and several coronary risk factors, we observed a lower risk of coronary disease among men with higher intakes of vitamin E (P for trend = 0.003). For men consuming more than 60 IU per day of vitamin E, the multivariate relative risk was 0.64 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.83) as compared with those consuming less than 7.5 IU per day. As compared with men who did not take vitamin E supplements, men who took at least 100 IU per day for at least two years had a multivariate relative risk of coronary disease of 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.84). Carotene intake was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease among those who had never smoked, but it was inversely associated with the risk among current smokers (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.82) and former smokers (relative risk, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.94). In contrast, a high intake of vitamin C was not associated with a lower risk of coronary disease. These data do not prove a causal relation, but they provide evidence of an association between a high intake of vitamin E and a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men. Public policy recommendations with regard to the use of vitamin E supplements should await the results of additional studies.
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            Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women.

            Interest in the antioxidant vitamin E as a possible protective nutrient against coronary disease has intensified with the recognition that oxidized low-density lipoprotein may be involved in atherogenesis. In 1980, 87,245 female nurses 34 to 59 years of age who were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and cancer completed dietary questionnaires that assessed their consumption of a wide range of nutrients, including vitamin E. During follow-up of up to eight years (679,485 person-years) that was 97 percent complete, we documented 552 cases of major coronary disease (437 nonfatal myocardial infarctions and 115 deaths due to coronary disease). As compared with women in the lowest fifth of the cohort with respect to vitamin E intake, those in the top fifth had a relative risk of major coronary disease of 0.66 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.87) after adjustment for age and smoking. Further adjustment for a variety of other coronary risk factors and nutrients, including other antioxidants, had little effect on the results. Most of the variability in intake and reduction in risk was attributable to vitamin E consumed as supplements. Women who took vitamin E supplements for short periods had little apparent benefit, but those who took them for more than two years had a relative risk of major coronary disease of 0.59 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.91) after adjustment for age, smoking status, risk factors for coronary disease, and use of other antioxidant nutrients (including multi-vitamins). Although these prospective data do not prove a cause-and-effect relation, they suggest that among middle-aged women the use of vitamin E supplements is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Randomized trials of vitamin E in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary disease are being conducted; public policy recommendations about the widespread use of vitamin E should await the results of these trials.
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              Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease.

               B Frei,  J Keaney,  J Vita (1997)
              Epidemiologic studies have provided evidence of an inverse relation between coronary artery disease and antioxidant intake, and vitamin E supplementation in particular. The oxidative-modification hypothesis implies that reduced atherosclerosis is a result of the production of LDL that is resistant to oxidation, but linking the reduced oxidation of LDL to a reduction in atherosclerosis has been problematic. Several important additional mechanisms may underlie the role of antioxidants in preventing the clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease (Fig. 2). Specifically, there is evidence that plaque stability, vasomotor function, and the tendency to thrombosis are subject to modification by specific antioxidants. For example, cellular antioxidants inhibit monocyte adhesion, protect against the cytotoxic effects of oxidized LDL, and inhibit platelet activation. Furthermore, cellular antioxidants protect against the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis by preserving endothelium-derived nitric oxide activity. We speculate that these mechanisms have an important role in the benefits of antioxidants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1999
                December 1999
                24 December 1999
                : 36
                : 6
                : 486-491
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine and bGeriatrics, University Hospital of Uppsala, Sweden
                Article
                25691 J Vasc Res 1999;36:486–491
                10.1159/000025691
                10629424
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 31, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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