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      The association of hemoglobin with postoperative delirium and atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a retrospective sub-study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Most cardiac surgery patients experience postoperative anemia. Delirium and Atrial Fibrillation (AF) are common and independent predictors of morbidity and mortality. Few reports examine their association with postoperative anemia. This study aims to quantify the association between anemia and these outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

          Methods

          This post-hoc analysis of the DECADE randomized controlled trial ran at six academic US hospitals. Patients aged 18–85 years with heart rate > 50 bpm undergoing cardiac surgery who had daily hemoglobin measurements in the first 5 Postoperative Days (POD) were included. Delirium was assessed twice daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM – ICU), preceded by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale, with patients excluded from assessment if sedated. Patients had daily hemoglobin measurements, continuous cardiac monitoring plus twice-daily 12-lead electrocardiograms, up to POD4. AF was diagnosed by clinicians blinded to hemoglobin levels.

          Results

          Five hundred and eighty-five patients were included. Mean postoperative hemoglobin Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.99 (95% CI 0.83, 1.19; p = 0.94) per 1 g.dL −1 hemoglobin decrease. 197 (34%) developed AF, mainly on POD = 2.3. Estimated HR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.93, 1.17; p = 0.51) per 1 g.dL −1 hemoglobin decrease.

          Conclusions

          Most patients undergoing major cardiac surgery were anemic in the postoperative phase. AF and delirium occurred in 34% and 12% of patients, respectively, but neither were significantly correlated with postoperative hemoglobin.

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          Most cited references36

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          The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale: validity and reliability in adult intensive care unit patients.

          Sedative medications are widely used in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Structured assessment of sedation and agitation is useful to titrate sedative medications and to evaluate agitated behavior, yet existing sedation scales have limitations. We measured inter-rater reliability and validity of a new 10-level (+4 "combative" to -5 "unarousable") scale, the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS), in two phases. In phase 1, we demonstrated excellent (r = 0.956, lower 90% confidence limit = 0.948; kappa = 0.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.71, 0.75) inter-rater reliability among five investigators (two physicians, two nurses, and one pharmacist) in adult ICU patient encounters (n = 192). Robust inter-rater reliability (r = 0.922-0.983) (kappa = 0.64-0.82) was demonstrated for patients from medical, surgical, cardiac surgery, coronary, and neuroscience ICUs, patients with and without mechanical ventilation, and patients with and without sedative medications. In validity testing, RASS correlated highly (r = 0.93) with a visual analog scale anchored by "combative" and "unresponsive," including all patient subgroups (r = 0.84-0.98). In the second phase, after implementation of RASS in our medical ICU, inter-rater reliability between a nurse educator and 27 RASS-trained bedside nurses in 101 patient encounters was high (r = 0.964, lower 90% confidence limit = 0.950; kappa = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.69, 0.90) and very good for all subgroups (r = 0.773-0.970, kappa = 0.66-0.89). Correlations between RASS and the Ramsay sedation scale (r = -0.78) and the Sedation Agitation Scale (r = 0.78) confirmed validity. Our nurses described RASS as logical, easy to administer, and readily recalled. RASS has high reliability and validity in medical and surgical, ventilated and nonventilated, and sedated and nonsedated adult ICU patients.
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            Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction.

            Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction (POCD) are topics of special importance in the geriatric surgical population. They are separate entities, whose relationship has yet to be fully elucidated. Although not limited to geriatric patients, the incidence and impact of both are more profound in geriatric patients. Delirium has been shown to be associated with longer and more costly hospital course and higher likelihood of death within 6 months or postoperative institutionalization. POCD has been associated with increased mortality, risk of leaving the labour market prematurely, and dependency on social transfer payments. Here, we review their definitions and aetiology, and discuss treatment and prevention in elderly patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Good basic care demands identification of at-risk patients, awareness of common perioperative aggravating factors, simple prevention interventions, recognition of the disease states, and basic treatments for patients with severe hyperactive manifestations.
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              Predictors of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery surgery. Current trends and impact on hospital resources.

              Atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Its pathophysiology is unclear, and its prevention and management remain suboptimal. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the current incidence of AF, identify its clinical predictors, and examine its impact on resource utilization. Over a 12-month period ending July 31, 1994, a CABG procedure was performed on 570 consecutive patients (age range, 32 to 87 years; median age, 67 years; 232 [41%] were > or = 70 years; 175 [31%] were women; 173 [30%] were diabetics; 364 [65%] required nonelective surgery; 86 [15%] had had a prior CABG; and 86 [15%] had had prior percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). AF occurred in 189 patients (33%). The median age for patients with AF was 71 years compared with 66 for patients without (P = .0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio, +/- 95% CI, P value) was used to identify the following independent predictors of postoperative AF: increasing age (age 70 to 80 years [OR = 2; CI, 1.3 to 3; P = .002], age > 80 years [OR = 3; CI, 1.6 to 5.8; P = .0007]), male gender (OR = 1.7; CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = .01), hypertension (OR = 1.6; CI, 1.0 to 2.3; P = .03), need for an intraoperative intraaortic balloon pump (OR = 3.5; CI, 1.2 to 10.9; P = .03), postoperative pneumonia (OR = 3.9; CI, 1.3 to 11.5; P = .01), ventilation for > 24 hours (OR = 2; CI, 1.3 to 3.2; P = .003), and return to the intensive care unit (OR = 3.2; CI, 1.1 to 8.8; P = .03). The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 15.3 +/- 28.6 days for patients with AF compared with 9.3 +/- 19.6 days for patients without AF (P = .001). The adjusted length of hospital stay attributable to AF was 4.9 days, corresponding to > or = $10 055 in hospital charges. AF remains the most common complication after CABG and consequently is a drain on hospital resources. Concerted efforts to reduce the incidence of AF and the associated increased length of stay would result in substantial cost saving and decrease patient morbidity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Braz J Anesthesiol
                Braz J Anesthesiol
                Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
                Elsevier
                0104-0014
                2352-2291
                08 March 2023
                May-Jun 2024
                08 March 2023
                : 74
                : 3
                : 744424
                Affiliations
                [a ]Cleveland Clinic, Anesthesiology Institute, Department of Outcomes Research, Cleveland, Ohio
                [b ]Adnan Menderes University, Department of General Anesthesiology, Aydın, Turkey
                [c ]Cleveland Clinic, Anesthesiology Institute, Department of General Anesthesiology, Cleveland, Ohio
                [d ]Cleveland Clinic, Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, Ohio
                [e ]Cleveland Clinic, Anesthesiology Institute, Department of Intensive Care & Resuscitation, Cleveland, Ohio
                [f ]Cleveland Clinic, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland, Ohio
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author. turana@ 123456ccf.org
                Article
                S0104-0014(23)00020-9 744424
                10.1016/j.bjane.2023.02.003
                11148484
                36894011
                5d37af75-9a65-44f2-bfb7-6ceba50a4ac9
                © 2023 Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. on behalf of Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 2 May 2022
                : 26 February 2023
                Categories
                Original Investigation

                anemia,delirium,atrial fibrillation,general anesthesia,cardiac surgery

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