Background: Animal studies have suggested that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have antirestenotic properties. However, human data are lacking. The goal of this single-center study was to assess the target vessel revascularization (TVR) rate following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among diabetic patients according to TZD use. Methods: A total of 325 consecutive diabetic patients who underwent PCI between January 2000 and December 2001 were included in the analysis. Among them, 82 patients were on TZD and 243 patients were on other hypoglycemic regimens. All patients were treated with stents and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors at the time of intervention. TVR and death/myocardial infarction/TVR were assessed at 1 year. Results: TZD patients were more likely to be younger, male and have hyperlipidemia. TVR occurred in 36.6% of TZD patients compared with 23.9% of non-TZD patients (p = 0.04). One-year death, myocardial infarction and TVR occurred in 41.1% of TZD patients compared with 30.8% of non-TZD patients (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, TZD therapy did not decrease the need for repeat revascularization following PCI. Prospective randomized studies are warranted.