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Rapid emergence of escape mutants following infection with murine cytomegalovirus in immunodeficient mice.

Clinical Immunology (Orlando, Fla.)

immunology, virology, genetics, Cytomegalovirus Infections, DNA, Viral, chemistry, Antigens, Ly, Flow Cytometry, Immunocompromised Host, Immunohistochemistry, Killer Cells, Natural, Lectins, C-Type, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Mice, Knockout, Mice, SCID, Mice, Transgenic, Muromegalovirus, Mutation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms, Spleen, Adoptive Transfer, Animals

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      Natural killer (NK) cells play a crucial role in the initial host defense against pathogens such as murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). They respond rapidly and effectively control pathogen replication while the adaptive immune system is being activated. However, in the absence of an adaptive immune system, an effective initial NK cell response is not sufficient for long-term pathogen control as demonstrated by the late recrudescence of disease and mortality in immunodeficient mice infected with MCMV. In this setting, NK cells suppress the initial infection but exert enough selective pressure to drive the outgrowth of MCMV mutants that escape recognition by NK cells. Herein, we characterize the rapid emergence of escape mutants following infection with a plaque-purified MCMV isolate and demonstrate that these mutant viruses are no longer effectively controlled by NK cells. These findings suggest that late recrudescence of viral infections in certain clinical settings may also be due to viral escape from NK cells or other components of innate immunity.

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