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      Industrial Applications of the Diels-Alder Reaction

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      Angewandte Chemie International Edition

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Diagnosing the decline in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency.

          The past 60 years have seen huge advances in many of the scientific, technological and managerial factors that should tend to raise the efficiency of commercial drug research and development (RD). Yet the number of new drugs approved per billion US dollars spent on RD has halved roughly every 9 years since 1950, falling around 80-fold in inflation-adjusted terms. There have been many proposed solutions to the problem of declining RD efficiency. However, their apparent lack of impact so far and the contrast between improving inputs and declining output in terms of the number of new drugs make it sensible to ask whether the underlying problems have been correctly diagnosed. Here, we discuss four factors that we consider to be primary causes, which we call the 'better than the Beatles' problem; the 'cautious regulator' problem; the 'throw money at it' tendency; and the 'basic research-brute force' bias. Our aim is to provoke a more systematic analysis of the causes of the decline in RD efficiency.
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            Biaryl Phosphane Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

            Palladium-catalyzed amination reactions of aryl halides have undergone rapid development in the last 12 years, largely driven by the implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphanes have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This Review discusses the application of these catalysts in C-N cross-coupling reactions in the synthesis of heterocycles and pharmaceuticals, in materials science, and in natural product synthesis.
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              Analysis of the reactions used for the preparation of drug candidate molecules.

              The purpose of this perspective is to indicate the range of chemistries used in the manufacture of drug candidate molecules and to highlight certain gaps in current technologies. To do this a survey was carried out of chemical syntheses within the Process Chemistry R&D departments of GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca and Pfizer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Angewandte Chemie International Edition
                Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                14337851
                April 02 2013
                April 02 2013
                : 52
                : 14
                : 3822-3863
                Article
                10.1002/anie.201201636
                © 2013

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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