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      Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change

      research-article

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      Global Change Biology

      John Wiley and Sons Inc.

      bioclimatic niches, climate change, compositional shifts, functional traits, temporal trends, tropical forests

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          Abstract

          Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate‐induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long‐term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO 2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water‐deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large‐statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry‐affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet‐affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry‐affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate‐change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole‐community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO 2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large‐statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.

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          Most cited references 90

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          Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits.

          There is considerable debate about whether community ecology will ever produce general principles. We suggest here that this can be achieved but that community ecology has lost its way by focusing on pairwise species interactions independent of the environment. We assert that community ecology should return to an emphasis on four themes that are tied together by a two-step process: how the fundamental niche is governed by functional traits within the context of abiotic environmental gradients; and how the interaction between traits and fundamental niches maps onto the realized niche in the context of a biotic interaction milieu. We suggest this approach can create a more quantitative and predictive science that can more readily address issues of global change.
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            Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum.

            Wood performs several essential functions in plants, including mechanically supporting aboveground tissue, storing water and other resources, and transporting sap. Woody tissues are likely to face physiological, structural and defensive trade-offs. How a plant optimizes among these competing functions can have major ecological implications, which have been under-appreciated by ecologists compared to the focus they have given to leaf function. To draw together our current understanding of wood function, we identify and collate data on the major wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical strength measures and anatomical features, as well as clade-specific features such as secondary chemistry. We then show how wood traits are related to one another, highlighting functional trade-offs, and to ecological and demographic plant features (growth form, growth rate, latitude, ecological setting). We suggest that, similar to the manifold that tree species leaf traits cluster around the 'leaf economics spectrum', a similar 'wood economics spectrum' may be defined. We then discuss the biogeography, evolution and biogeochemistry of the spectrum, and conclude by pointing out the major gaps in our current knowledge of wood functional traits.
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              A significant upward shift in plant species optimum elevation during the 20th century.

              Spatial fingerprints of climate change on biotic communities are usually associated with changes in the distribution of species at their latitudinal or altitudinal extremes. By comparing the altitudinal distribution of 171 forest plant species between 1905 and 1985 and 1986 and 2005 along the entire elevation range (0 to 2600 meters above sea level) in west Europe, we show that climate warming has resulted in a significant upward shift in species optimum elevation averaging 29 meters per decade. The shift is larger for species restricted to mountain habitats and for grassy species, which are characterized by faster population turnover. Our study shows that climate change affects the spatial core of the distributional range of plant species, in addition to their distributional margins, as previously reported.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                adriane.esquivel@gmail.com
                Journal
                Glob Chang Biol
                Glob Chang Biol
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2486
                GCB
                Global Change Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1354-1013
                1365-2486
                08 November 2018
                January 2019
                : 25
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/gcb.2019.25.issue-1 )
                : 39-56
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] School of Geography University of Leeds Leeds UK
                [ 2 ] Royal Botanic Garden of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK
                [ 3 ] School of Geosciences University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK
                [ 4 ] Department of Geography University College London London UK
                [ 5 ] Geography College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Exeter UK
                [ 6 ] Department of Life Sciences Imperial College London Ascot UK
                [ 7 ] Jardín Botánico de Missouri Oxapampa Peru
                [ 8 ] Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco Cusco Peru
                [ 9 ] Universidad Autónoma Gabriel Rene Moreno El Vallecito Santa Cruz Bolivia
                [ 10 ] Red para la Mitigación y Adaptación al Cambio Climático - Red MiA Escuela ECAPMA de la Universidad Nacional Abierta y a Distancia Bogotá Colombia
                [ 11 ] Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia ‐ Coordenação de Pesquisas em Silvicultura Tropical Manaus Brazil
                [ 12 ] Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso Mato Grosso Nova Xavantina Brazil
                [ 13 ] Universidade Federal do Acre Museu Universitário Acre Brazil
                [ 14 ] Universidad de los Andes Merida Venezuela
                [ 15 ] School of Environmental and Forest Sciences University of Washington Seattle, Washington
                [ 16 ] Environmental Change Institute School of Geography and the Environment University of Oxford Oxford UK
                [ 17 ] Laboratoire Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB) UMR 5174 CNRS/UPS Bâtiment 4R1 Toulouse France
                [ 18 ] Lancaster Environment Centre Lancaster University Lancaster UK
                [ 19 ] Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Belém Brazil
                [ 20 ] AgroParisTech INRA UMR Silva Université de Lorraine Nancy France
                [ 21 ] Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana Iquitos Peru
                [ 22 ] Smithsonian Institution Washington District of Columbia
                [ 23 ] Cirad UR Forests & Societies University of Montpellier Montpellier France
                [ 24 ] INPHB Institut National Polytechnique Félix Houphouët‐Boigny Yamoussoukro Ivory Coast
                [ 25 ] Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and College of Marine and Environmental Sciences James Cook University Cairns Queensland Australia
                [ 26 ] Forest Ecology and Forest Managment group Wageningen University and Research Wageningen The Netherlands
                [ 27 ] INRA UMR EcoFoG AgroParisTech CNRS Cirad Université des Antilles Université de Guyane Kourou France
                [ 28 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden The Netherlands
                [ 29 ] Systems Ecology Free University Amsterdam Netherlands
                [ 30 ] Centro de Investigación y Promoción del Campesinado ‐ Norte Amazónico Riberalta Bolivia
                [ 31 ] Universidad Autónoma del Beni Riberalta Bolivia
                [ 32 ] Programa Manejo de Bosques de la Amazonía Boliviana Riberalta Bolivia
                [ 33 ] Instituto de Biodiversidade e Floresta Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará Pará Brazil
                [ 34 ] Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Projeto Dinâmica Biológica de Fragmentos Florestais Manaus Brazil
                [ 35 ] Universidade Estadual de Campinas Campinas, São Paulo Brazil
                [ 36 ] National Institute for Space Research (INPE) São José dos Campos, São Paulo Brazil
                [ 37 ] Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno Santa Cruz Bolivia
                [ 38 ] Wageningen Environmental Research Wageningen University and Research Wageningen The Netherlands
                [ 39 ] UNELLEZ‐Guanare Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar Herbario Universitario (PORT) Barinas Venezuela
                [ 40 ] International Center for Tropical Botany Department of Biological Sciences Florida International University Miami Florida
                [ 41 ] Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo Brazil
                [ 42 ] Universidade Federal do Acre Rio Branco, Acre Brazil
                [ 43 ] 31 Tropenbos International and Group Ecology and Biodiversity Beta Faculty Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands
                [ 44 ] Programa de Pós‐Graduação Ecologia e Manejo de Recursos Naturais Universidade Federal do Acre Rio Branco, Acre Brazil
                [ 45 ] Jardin Botanico de Missouri Cusco Peru
                [ 46 ] Inventory and Monitoring Program National Park Service Fredericksburg Virginia
                [ 47 ] Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program Puerto Maldonado Peru
                [ 48 ] Universidade Federal do Pará Pará Brazil
                [ 49 ] Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana Iquitos Peru
                [ 50 ] Michigan Tech University Houghton Michigan
                [ 51 ] University of Texas at Austin Austin Texas
                [ 52 ] AMAP IRD CIRAD CNRS INRA Boulevard de la Lironde Université de Montpellier Montpellier France
                [ 53 ] Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre de Grohmann (UNJBG) Tacna Peru
                [ 54 ] Centro de Ecologia Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas Caracas Venezuela
                [ 55 ] ReforeST Group DIHMA Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Valencia Spain
                [ 56 ] Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren Belgium
                [ 57 ] Grupo de Investigación en Temas Agroambientales INTEGRA Tecnológico de Antioquia Institución Universitaria Medellin Colombia
                [ 58 ] Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia Manaus Brazil
                [ 59 ] Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS) and College of Science and Engineering James Cook University Cairns Queensland Australia
                [ 60 ] Center for Biodiversity and Sustainability at George Mason University Fairfax Virginia
                [ 61 ] Universidad de Tolima Villeta Colombia
                [ 62 ] Universidad Estatal Amazónica Puyo, Pastaza Ecuador
                [ 63 ] Universidad Regional Amazónica ikiam Tena Ecuador
                [ 64 ] Cirad UMR Ecofog (AgrosParisTech, CNRS, INRA, Univ Guyane) Kourou French Guiana
                [ 65 ] Science and Education The Field Museum Chicago Illinois
                [ 66 ] Instituto de Ciencias Naturales Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogota Colombia
                [ 67 ] UMR 5174 Evolution et Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier CNRS Toulouse France
                [ 68 ] Servicios Ecosistémicos y Cambio Climático (SECC) Fundación Con Vida & Corporación COL‐TREE Medellin Colombia
                [ 69 ] Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development Georgetown Guyana
                [ 70 ] Pós‐Graduação em Botânica Tropical Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Pará Brazil
                [ 71 ] Programa de Pós‐Graduação em Agricultura e Ambiente Universidade Estadual do Maranhão São Luís, Maranhão Brasil
                [ 72 ] Serviço Florestal Brasileiro Santarem Brazil
                [ 73 ] Departamento de Biología Universidad de La Serena La Serena Chile
                [ 74 ] Guyana Forestry Commission Georgetown Guyana
                [ 75 ] Institute of Biological and Health Sciences Federal University of Alagoas Maceió Alagoas Brazil
                [ 76 ] Center for Tropical Conservation Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham North Carolina
                [ 77 ] INDEFOR Universidad de Los Andes Mérida Venezuela
                [ 78 ] Forest and Nature Management Group Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences Velp The Netherland
                [ 79 ] University of Nottingham Nottingham UK
                [ 80 ] van der Hout Forestry Consulting Rotterdam The Netherlands
                [ 81 ] Escuela Profesional de Ingeniería Forestal Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco Puerto Maldonado Perú
                [ 82 ] Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Pará Brazil
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Adriane Esquivel‐Muelbert, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

                Email: adriane.esquivel@ 123456gmail.com

                Article
                GCB14413
                10.1111/gcb.14413
                6334637
                30406962
                5d6ac540-23fb-4f17-bb84-ea57d4c6ac04
                © 2018 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 18, Words: 14742
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
                Award ID: NE/N004655/1
                Funded by: NERC Consortium Grants “AMAZONICA”
                Funded by: BIO‐RED
                Funded by: European Research Council (ERC)
                Funded by: The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
                Funded by: European Union's Seventh Framework Programme
                Award ID: 282664
                Funded by: Royal Society
                Award ID: CH160091
                Funded by: Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award
                Categories
                Primary Research Article
                Primary Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                gcb14413
                January 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.5.4 mode:remove_FC converted:16.01.2019

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