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      The success story of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in the Philippines (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae), with description of 18 new species

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          Abstract

          Material collected between 1994 and 2020 in the Philippines, covering most main islands like Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Negros, Cebu, Leyte, and Mindanao and some smaller islands, substantially increased our knowledge of Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge in this archipelago. Only three species were previously reported: L. molawinensis (Müller-Liebenau, 1982) and L. sumigarensis (Müller-Liebenau, 1982) from larvae and L. boettgeri (Ulmer, 1924) from adults. Eighteen new species have been identified using a combination of morphology and genetic distance (COI, Kimura 2-parameter). They are described and illustrated based on their larvae and a key to all species in the Philippines is provided. The total number of Labiobaetis in the Philippines has increased to 21 species. Additional diversity of Labiobaetis based on molecular evidence only is presented as Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) without description. The interspecific K2P distances in the Philippines are between 15% and 27%, the intraspecific distances are usually between 0% and 3%. The total number of Labiobaetis species worldwide is augmented to 144.

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          Most cited references 71

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

             Motoo Kimura (1980)
            Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.
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              Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions, model and animations

               Robert Hall (2002)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                10 December 2020
                : 1002
                : 1-114
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Museum of Zoology, Palais de Rumine, Place Riponne 6, CH-1005 Lausanne, Switzerland Museum of Zoology Lausanne Switzerland
                [2 ] University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Ecology and Evolution, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland University of Lausanne (UNIL), Department of Ecology and Evolution Lausanne Switzerland
                [3 ] Department of Biology, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, 1108 Metro Manila, Philippines Ateneo de Manila University Quezon City Philippines
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Thomas Kaltenbach ( thomas.kaltenbach@ 123456bluewin.ch )

                Academic editor: L. Pereira-da-Conceicoa

                Article
                58017
                10.3897/zookeys.1002.58017
                7746671
                Thomas Kaltenbach, Jhoana Garces, Jean-Luc Gattolliat

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Animalia
                Arthropoda
                Baetidae
                Baetoidea
                Ephemeroptera
                Hexapoda
                Insecta
                Invertebrata
                Taxonomy
                Neogene
                Asia
                Far East
                Philippines

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