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      The value of a single character: the Paleogene European land snail Ferussina Grateloup, 1827 is likely a cyclophorid (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Ferussina Grateloup, 1827 is a European Paleogene land snail genus, which is currently classified in its own family, the Ferussinidae Wenz, 1923 (1915), in the superfamily Cyclophoroidea . The shell of this genus is remarkable by its last quarter whorl turning towards the apex instead of away from it, which is an unusual trait in terrestrial snails. We show, however, that this trait has evolved at least nine times in terrestrial Eupulmonata and Caenogastropoda , and it does not justify distinction at the family level in any of the reported cases. This observation suggests the systematic position of Ferussina should not be based on the apexward-turning last quarter whorl alone but instead on the general morphology of the shell. As a result, we re-evaluate the systematic position of the Ferussinidae and treat it as a subfamily of the Cyclophoridae .

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          Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families

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            Heterogeneity in global vegetation and terrestrial climate change during the late Eocene to early Oligocene transition

            Rapid global cooling at the Eocene – Oligocene Transition (EOT), ~33.9–33.5 Ma, is widely considered to mark the onset of the modern icehouse world. A large and rapid drop in atmospheric pCO2 has been proposed as the driving force behind extinctions in the marine realm and glaciation on Antarctica. However, the global terrestrial response to this cooling is uncertain. Here we present the first global vegetation and terrestrial temperature reconstructions for the EOT. Using an extensive palynological dataset, that has been statistically grouped into palaeo-biomes, we show a more transitional nature of terrestrial climate change by indicating a spatial and temporal heterogeneity of vegetation change at the EOT in both hemispheres. The reconstructed terrestrial temperatures show for many regions a cooling that started well before the EOT and continued into the Early Oligocene. We conclude that the heterogeneous pattern of global vegetation change has been controlled by a combination of multiple forcings, such as tectonics, sea-level fall and long-term decline in greenhouse gas concentrations during the late Eocene to early Oligocene, and does not represent a single response to a rapid decline in atmospheric pCO2 at the EOT.
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              Phylogenetic reconstruction and shell evolution of the Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda).

              The fascinating and often unlikely shell shapes in the terrestrial micromollusc family Diplommatinidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) provide a particularly attractive set of multiple morphological traits to investigate evolutionary patterns of shape variation. Here, a molecular phylogenetic reconstruction, based on five genes and 2700 bp, was undertaken for this family, integrated with ancestral state reconstruction and phylogenetic PCA of discrete and quantitative traits, respectively. We found strong support for the Diplommatininae as a monophyletic group, separating the Cochlostomatidae into a separate family. Five main clades appear within the Diplommatininae, corresponding with both coiling direction and biogeographic patterns. A Belau clade (A) with highly diverse (but always sinistral) morphology comprised Hungerfordia, Palaina, and some Diplommatina. Arinia (dextral) and Opisthostoma (sinistroid) are sister groups in clade B. Clade C and D solely contain sinistral Diplommatina that are robust and little ornamented (clade C) or slender and sculptured (clade D). Clade E is dextral but biogeographically diverse with species from all sampled regions save the Caroline Islands. Adelopoma, Diplommatina, Palaina, and Hungerfordia require revision to allow taxonomy to reflect phylogeny, whereas Opisthostoma is clearly monophyletic. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests a sinistral origin for the Diplommatinidae, with three reversals to dextrality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                12 March 2020
                : 918
                : 29-40
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research, Herman Ottó Street 15, Budapest, H-1022, Hungary Plant Protection Institute, Centre for Agricultural Research Budapest Hungary
                [2 ] Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26–32 IFZ, 35392 Giessen, Germany Justus Liebig University Giessen Germany
                [3 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden Netherlands
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Barna Páll-Gergely ( pall-gergely.barna@ 123456agrar.mta.hu ; pallgergely2@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: M. Haase

                Article
                50135
                10.3897/zookeys.918.50135
                7082398
                Barna Páll-Gergely, Thomas A. Neubauer

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Hungarian Academy of Sciences) Premium Post Doctorate Research Program; DFG grant (no. NE 2268/2-1).
                Categories
                Research Article
                Gastropoda
                Evolutionary Biology
                Palaeontology
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                World

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