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      Lensless photography with only an image sensor

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      Applied Optics

      The Optical Society

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          Abstract

          Photography usually requires optics in conjunction with a recording device (an image sensor). Eliminating the optics could lead to new form factors for cameras. Here, we report a simple demonstration of imaging using a bare CMOS sensor that utilizes computation. The technique relies on the space variant point-spread functions resulting from the interaction of a point source in the field of view with the image sensor. These space-variant point-spread functions are combined with a reconstruction algorithm in order to image simple objects displayed on a discrete LED array as well as on an LCD screen. We extended the approach to video imaging. Finally, we performed experiments to analyze the parametric impact of the object distance. Improving the sensor designs and reconstruction algorithms can lead to useful cameras without optics.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Is Open Access

          Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution

          We demonstrate lensfree holographic microscopy on a chip to achieve ~0.6 µm spatial resolution corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.5 over a large field-of-view of ~24 mm2. By using partially coherent illumination from a large aperture (~50 µm), we acquire lower resolution lensfree in-line holograms of the objects with unit fringe magnification. For each lensfree hologram, the pixel size at the sensor chip limits the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image. To circumvent this limitation, we implement a sub-pixel shifting based super-resolution algorithm to effectively recover much higher resolution digital holograms of the objects, permitting sub-micron spatial resolution to be achieved across the entire sensor chip active area, which is also equivalent to the imaging field-of-view (24 mm2) due to unit magnification. We demonstrate the success of this pixel super-resolution approach by imaging patterned transparent substrates, blood smear samples, as well as Caenoharbditis Elegans.
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            An Estimate for the Condition Number of a Matrix

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              Ghost imaging in the time domain

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                APOPAI
                Applied Optics
                Appl. Opt.
                The Optical Society
                1559-128X
                2155-3165
                2017
                2017
                August 03 2017
                August 10 2017
                : 56
                : 23
                : 6450
                Article
                10.1364/AO.56.006450
                29047934
                © 2017

                Free to read

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