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      Diminishing the side effect of mitomycin C by using pH-sensitive liposomes: in vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics


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          Mitomycin C is an anticancer antibiotic agent that has the potential for broad-spectrum use against several cancers, including mammary cancers. Because its half-life is 17 min after a 30 mg intravenous bolus administration, the suitability of mitomycin C for wide use in the clinical setting is limited. Based on tumor pathophysiology, pH-sensitive liposomes could provide better tumor-targeted effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of diminishing the side effect of mitomycin C by using pH-sensitive liposomes.

          Materials and methods

          pH-sensitive liposomes was employed to deliver mitomycin C and evaluate the characterization, release behaviors, cytotoxicity, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biochemical assay.


          The results demonstrated that mitomycin C-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes had a particle diameter of 144.5±2.8 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 66.5%. The in vitro release study showed that the pH-sensitive liposome release percentages at pH 7.4 and pH 5.5 were approximately 47% and 93%, respectively. The cell viability of MCF-7 cells showed that both the solution and liposome group exhibited a concentration-dependent effect on cell viability. The MCF-7 cell uptake of pH-sensitive liposomes with a folate modification was higher which was indicated by an increased fluorescence intensity compared to that without a folate modification. The area under the concentration–time curve of mitomycin C-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes (18.82±0.51 µg·h/L) was significantly higher than that of the mitomycin C solution group (10.07±0.31 µg·h/L). The mean residence times of the mitomycin C-loaded and mitomycin C solution groups were 1.53±0.16 and 0.05 h, respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference in terms of V ss ( p>0.05). Moreover, the half-life of pH-sensitive liposomes and the mitomycin C solution was 1.35±0.15 and 1.60±0.04 h, respectively. In terms of safety, mitomycin C-loaded pH-sensitive liposomes did not affect the platelet count and the levels of blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase.


          The positive results of pH-sensitive liposomes demonstrated maintained the cytotoxicity and decrease the side effect.

          Most cited references41

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          Stealth liposomes: review of the basic science, rationale, and clinical applications, existing and potential

          Among several promising new drug-delivery systems, liposomes represent an advanced technology to deliver active molecules to the site of action, and at present several formulations are in clinical use. Research on liposome technology has progressed from conventional vesicles (“first-generation liposomes”) to “second-generation liposomes”, in which long-circulating liposomes are obtained by modulating the lipid composition, size, and charge of the vesicle. Liposomes with modified surfaces have also been developed using several molecules, such as glycolipids or sialic acid. A significant step in the development of long-circulating liposomes came with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend blood-circulation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (stealth liposomes). This technology has resulted in a large number of liposome formulations encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further, by synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule, stealth liposomes can be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands. This review focuses on stealth technology and summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations; it also discusses emerging trends of this promising technology.
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            Recent progress in tumor pH targeting nanotechnology.

            pH-sensitive polymeric micelles and nanogels have recently been developed to target slightly acidic extracellular pH environment of solid tumors. The pH targeting approach is regarded as a more general strategy than conventional specific tumor cell surface targeting approaches, because the acidic tumor microclimate is most common in solid tumors. When nanosystems are combined with triggered release mechanisms by endosomal or lysosomal acidity plus endosomolytic capability, the nanocarriers demonstrated to overcome multidrug resistance of various tumors. This review highlights recent progress of the pH-sensitive nanotechnology developed in Bae research group.
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              Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution properties of poly(ethylene glycol)-protein conjugates.

              P Caliceti (2003)
              Peptide and protein PEGylation is usually undertaken to improve the biopharmaceutical properties of these drugs and, to date, several examples of conjugates with long permanence in the body as well as with localization ability in disease sites have been reported. Although a number of studies on the in vivo behavior and fate of conjugates have been performed, forecasting their pharmacokinetics is a difficult task since the pharmacokinetic profile is determined by a number of parameters which include physiological and anatomical aspects of the recipient and physico-chemical properties of the derivative. The most relevant perturbations of the protein molecule following PEG conjugation are: size enlargement, protein surface and glycosylation function masking, charge modification, and epitope shielding. In particular, size enlargement slows down kidney ultrafiltration and promotes the accumulation into permeable tissues by the passive enhanced permeation and retention mechanism. Charge and glycosylation function masking is revealed predominantly in reduced phagocytosis by the RES and liver cells. Protein shielding reduces proteolysis and immune system recognition, which are important routes of elimination. The specific effect of PEGylation on protein physico-chemical and biological properties is strictly determined by protein and polymer properties as well as by the adopted PEGylation strategy. Relevant parameters to be considered in protein-polymer conjugates are: protein structure, molecular weight and composition, polymer molecular weight and shape, number of linked polymer chains and conjugation chemistry. The examples reported in this review show that general considerations could be useful in developing a target product, although significant deviations from the expected results can not be excluded.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                15 January 2018
                : 12
                : 159-169
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University
                [2 ]Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital
                [3 ]Center for Stem Cell Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi-Ping Fang, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, San Ming District, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan, Tel +886 7 312 1101 ext 2261, Fax +886 7 321 0683, Email ypfang@ 123456kmu.edu.tw
                © 2018 Fang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                mitomycin c,liposomes,ph-triggered release,pharmacokinetics,side effect


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