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      Pig-hunting dogs are an at-risk population for canine heartworm ( Dirofilaria immitis) infection in eastern Australia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Canine heartworm disease, caused by Dirofilaria immitis, has global veterinary importance. In Australia, the prevalence of canine heartworm infection decreased markedly following the introduction of over-the-counter macrocyclic lactones. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of canine heartworm infection in at-risk populations of dogs in eastern Australia and analyse published prevalence data from Australia.

          Methods

          In total, 566 dogs from eastern Australia were tested for the presence of D. immitis antigen. Four cohorts were studied: pig-hunting dogs from Queensland (Cohort 1, n = 104), dogs from remote New South Wales (NSW) (Cohort 2, n = 332), urban pets from rural NSW (Cohort 3, n = 45) and ex-racing Greyhounds from Sydney, NSW (Cohort 4, n = 85). Serum samples were screened for D. immitis antigen using a reference laboratory microwell-based assay (DiroChek ®) or a point-of-care immunochromatography test kit (Anigen Rapid ®). Risk factors associated with the odds of D. immitis antigen seropositivity were identified using binary logistic regression models. Seropositive blood samples were tested for the presence and quantity of D. immitis DNA using a species specific real-time (q)PCR assay. A metanalysis of the Australian canine heartworm literature was conducted.

          Results

          The prevalence of dirofilariasis in pig-hunting dogs from Queensland (Cohort 1) was 12.5% (95% CI: 6.5–18.9%), with a subpopulation of dogs from Central Queensland having a prevalence of 21% (95% CI: 12.3–33.4%). Age was significantly associated with D. immitis antigen seropositivity (increased risk with increased age). The odds of being > 5 years versus ≤ 5 years was 3.7-times (95% CI: 1.1–12.5) greater in antigen positive versus antigen negative dogs. No D. immitis antigen positive dogs were detected in dogs from NSW (Cohorts 2–4). The Australian canine heartworm disease literature includes 98 peer-reviewed publications (1901–2019) with 30 studies reporting on D. immitis prevalence in dogs. Throughout the publication peak period (1980s), the primary antemortem diagnostic test was detection of microfilariae.

          Conclusions

          Canine heartworm infection in dogs used for pig hunting is a previously unexplored topic in Australia. Pig-hunting dogs are infected with canine heartworm in Queensland, Australia, placing pet dogs and cats at increased risk of infection.

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          Most cited references56

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          Heartworm disease in animals and humans.

          Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm societies have been established in the USA and Japan and the First European Dirofilaria Days (FEDD) Conference was held in Zagreb, Croatia, in February of 2007. These organizations promote awareness, encourage research and provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of heartworm disease. The chapter begins with a review of the biology and life cycle of the parasite. It continues with the prevalence and distribution of the disease in domestic and wild animals, with emphasis on more recent data on the spreading of the disease and the use of molecular biology techniques in vector studies. The section on pathogenesis and immunology also includes a discussion of the current knowledge of the potential role of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in inflammatory and immune responses to D. immitis infection, diagnostic use of specific immune responses to the bacteria, immunomodulatory activity and antibiotic treatment of infected animals. Canine, feline and ferret heartworm disease are updated with regard to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, therapy and management of the disease, with special emphasis on the recently described Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD) Syndrome in cats. The section devoted to heartworm infection in humans also includes notes on other epizootic filariae, particularly D. repens in humans in Europe. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emerging strategies in heartworm treatment and control, highlighting the potential role of tetracycline antibiotics in adulticidal therapy.
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            Discrimination between six species of canine microfilariae by a single polymerase chain reaction.

            Canine dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is usually diagnosed by specific antigen testing and/or identification of microfilariae. However, D. immitis and at least six other filariae can produce canine microfilaremias with negative heartworm antigen tests. Discriminating these can be of clinical importance. To resolve discordant diagnoses by two diagnostic laboratories in an antigen-negative, microfilaremic dog recently imported into the US from Europe we developed a simple molecular method of identifying different microfilariae, and subsequently validated our method against six different filariae known to infect dogs by amplifying ribosomal DNA spacer sequences by polymerase chain reaction using common and species-specific primers, and sequencing the products to confirm the genotype of the filariae. We identified the filaria in this dog as D. repens. This is the first case of D. repens infection in the United States. Additionally, we examined microfilariae from five additional antigen-negative, microfilaremic dogs and successfully identified the infecting parasite in each case. Our diagnoses differed from the initial morphological diagnosis in three of these cases, demonstrating the inaccuracy of morphological diagnosis. In each case, microfilariae identified morphologically as A. reconditum were identified as D. immitis by molecular methods. Finally, we demonstrated that our PCR method should amplify DNA from at least two additional filariae (Onchocerca and Mansonella), suggesting that this method may be suitable for genotyping all members of the family Onchocercidae.
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              RTPrimerDB: the portal for real-time PCR primers and probes

              RTPrimerDB (http://www.rtprimerdb.org) is a freely accessible database and analysis tool for real-time quantitative PCR assays. RTPrimerDB includes records with user submitted assays that are linked to genome information from reference databases and quality controlled using an in silico assay evaluation system. The primer evaluation tools intended to assess the specificity and to detect features that could negatively affect the amplification efficiency are combined into a pipeline to test custom-designed primer and probe sequences. An improved user feedback system guides users and submitters to enter practical remarks and details about experimental evaluation analyses. The database is linked with reference databases to allow the submission of assays for all genes and organisms officially registered in Entrez Gene and RefSeq. Records in RTPrimerDB are assigned unique and stable identifiers. The content is provided via an interactive web-based search system and is available for download in the recently developed RDML format and as bulk export file. RTPrimerDB is a one-stop portal for high-quality and highly annotated real-time PCR assays.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                borr3726@uni.sydney.edu.au
                gemma.ma@sydney.edu.au
                wkoh6197@uni.sydney.edu.au
                richard.malik@sydney.edu.au
                jacqui.norris@sydney.edu.au
                mark.westman@sydney.edu.au
                greyhoundpets@optusnet.com.au
                graeme.brown@sydney.edu.au
                michael.ward@sydney.edu.au
                jan.slapeta@sydney.edu.au
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                13 February 2020
                13 February 2020
                2020
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 834X, GRID grid.1013.3, Centre for Veterinary Education, , The University of Sydney, ; Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia
                [3 ]Greyhound Adoption Program (NSW), PO Box 24, Belrose West, NSW 2085 Australia
                Article
                3943
                10.1186/s13071-020-3943-4
                7020351
                32054524
                5d9ef4e7-15a4-47a8-bddf-3f736d7145be
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Companion Animal Health Foundation Research Grant
                Award ID: 007/2019
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011890, Marie Bashir Institute, University of Sydney;
                Funded by: Australian Government Research Training Program scholarship
                Funded by: Valentine Charlton Bequest
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Parasitology
                heartworm,dirofilaria immitis,canine,pig-hunting,australia,prevalence,at-risk population
                Parasitology
                heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, canine, pig-hunting, australia, prevalence, at-risk population

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