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      Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and the Safety and Effectiveness of Monthly Ergocalciferol in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in CKD and dialysis patients. Studies suggest a physiologic autocrine and/or paracrine role for 1,25(OH)D produced via 1α-hydroxylase in tissues such as vascular smooth muscle, breast, prostate, and bone marrow. Studies have not yet defined the optimal dose and duration of vitamin D necessary to replete and maintain stores in dialysis patients, or whether it is safe or beneficial. Methods: We performed a review of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the safety and effectiveness of ergocalciferol oral supplementation (vitamin D<sub>2</sub>, 50,000 IU monthly) given to hemodialysis patients during dialysis May to October 2005 in St. Louis (latitude 38°). Results: Among the 119-patient cohort present for the entire 6 months, 25(OH)D was (mean ± SD) 16.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml, (91% < 30 ng/ml) and increased to 53.6 ± 16.3 ng/ml (p < 0.001), (95% > 30 ng/ml, and none > 100 ng/ml). Initial versus 6 mo. serum calcium (9.1 ± 0.56 vs. 9.2 ± 0.70), phosphorus (5.25 ± 1.38 vs. 5.11 ± 1.31), Ca × P, and paricalcitol dose (10.3 ± 9.6 vs. 11.3 ± 9.2 mcg/week) were not significantly different. No hypercalcemia could be attributed to supplementation. Mean hemoglobin did not change significantly (11.96 ± 1.4 vs. 11.69 ± 1.4, p = 0.124), but most patients experienced a reduced weekly epoetin dose. Epoetin dose decreased in 64% of patients, and increased in 28%. Conclusions: We conclude that the vast majority of hemodialysis patients are vitamin D-deficient; monthly ergocalciferol 50,000 IU is safe and effective in normalizing serum 25(OH)D levels and may have an epoetin-sparing effect.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Hypovitaminosis D in medical inpatients.

          Vitamin D deficiency is a major risk factor for bone loss and fracture. Although hypovitaminosis D has been detected frequently in elderly and housebound people, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients hospitalized on a general medical service is unknown. We assessed vitamin D intake, ultraviolet-light exposure, and risk factors for hypovitaminosis D and measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and ionized calcium in 290 consecutive patients on a general medical ward. A total of 164 patients (57 percent) were considered vitamin D-deficient (serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, < or = 15 ng per milliliter), of whom 65 (22 percent) were considered severely vitamin D-deficient (serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, <8 ng per milliliter). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were related inversely to parathyroid hormone concentrations. Lower vitamin D intake, less exposure to ultraviolet light, anticonvulsant-drug therapy, renal dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, winter season, higher serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase, and lower serum concentrations of ionized calcium and albumin were significant univariate predictors of hypovitaminosis D. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who consumed less than the recommended daily allowance of vitamin D and 43 percent of the patients with vitamin D intakes above the recommended daily allowance were vitamin D-deficient. Inadequate vitamin D intake, winter season, and housebound status were independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D in a multivariate model. In a subgroup of 77 patients less than 65 years of age without known risk factors for hypovitaminosis D, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 42 percent. Hypovitaminosis D is common in general medical inpatients, including those with vitamin D intakes exceeding the recommended daily allowance and those without apparent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.
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            Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

            Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Prevalence of calcidiol deficiency in CKD: a cross-sectional study across latitudes in the United States.

              Recent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines have raised concerns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or calcidiol, insufficiency and deficiency in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not yet on dialysis therapy; however, no cross-sectional study across latitudes has been performed to support this assertion. Baseline screening data from a prospective study were used to determine calcidiol levels in subjects with moderate to severe CKD not yet on dialysis therapy from 12 geographically diverse regions of the United States. Calcidiol deficiency is defined as levels less than 10 ng/mL (< 25 nmol/L), and insufficiency, as levels of 10 to 30 ng/mL (25 to 75 nmol/L). Two hundred one subjects with a mean age 65 +/- 13 years and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 27 +/- 11 mL/min (0.45 mL/s) were evaluated. Overall mean calcidiol level was 19.4 +/- 13.6 ng/mL (48 +/- 34 nmol/L), with a range of 0 to 65 ng/mL (0 to 162 nmol/L). Only 29% and 17% of subjects with moderate and severe CKD had sufficient levels, respectively. Mean calcidiol levels were less than sufficient levels in all geographic locations tested. Multivariate analysis found log calcidiol level correlated with calcium level (P = 0.016), log calcitriol level (P = 0.024), sex (P = 0.041), geographic location (P = 0.045), and inverse intact parathyroid hormone level (P = 0.013), but not calculated GFR or phosphorous level. Calcidiol levels changed modestly in 18 patients who had calcidiol levels measured in winter and late summer after confirmed exposure to sunlight, with mean calcidiol levels of 17.9 +/- 11.7 to 21.2 +/- 10.0 ng/mL (45 +/- 29 to 53 +/- 25 nmol/L; P = 0.015). This cross-sectional cohort study found a high prevalence of calcidiol deficiency and insufficiency in patients with moderate and severe CKD not on dialysis therapy regardless of geographic location.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                February 2007
                16 January 2007
                : 105
                : 3
                : c132-c138
                Affiliations
                aChromalloy American Kidney Center and Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Renal Division, Saint Louis, Mo., and bUniversity of Missouri-Columbia Hospital and Clinics, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Columbia, Mo., USA
                Article
                98645 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;105:c132–c138
                10.1159/000098645
                17228173
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98645
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                End-stage renal disease, Ergocalciferol, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D

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