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      Acute renal failure: definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy

      , , ,

      Journal of Clinical Investigation

      American Society for Clinical Investigation

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          Nitric oxide synthase generates superoxide and nitric oxide in arginine-depleted cells leading to peroxynitrite-mediated cellular injury.

           Y Xia,  J Zweier,  S. Snyder (1996)
          Besides synthesizing nitric oxide (NO), purified neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) can produce superoxide (.O2-) at lower L-Arg concentrations. By using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques, we monitored NO and .O2- formation in nNOS-transfected human kidney 293 cells. In control transfected cells, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 triggered NO generation but no .O2- was seen. With cells in L-Arg-free medium, we observed .O2- formation that increased as the cytosolic L-Arg levels decreased, while NO generation declined. .O2- formation was virtually abolished by the specific NOS blocker, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Nitrotyrosine, a specific nitration product of peroxynitrite, accumulated in L-Arg-depleted cells but not in control cells. Activation by A23187 was cytotoxic to L-Arg-depleted, but not to control cells, with marked lactate dehydrogenase release. The cytotoxicity was largely prevented by either superoxide dismutase or L-NAME. Thus, with reduced L-Arg availability NOS elicits cytotoxicity by generating .O2- and NO that interact to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite. Regulating arginine levels may provide a therapeutic approach to disorders involving .O2-/NO-mediated cellular injury.
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            Serum cystatin C as a new marker for noninvasive estimation of glomerular filtration rate and as a marker for early renal impairment.

            Cystatin C is a nonglycosylated basic protein produced at a constant rate by all investigated nucleated cells. It is freely filtered by the renal glomeruli and primarily catabolized in the tubuli (not secreted or reabsorbed as an intact molecule). Because serum cystatin C concentration is independent of age, sex, and muscle mass, it has been postulated to be an improved marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared with serum creatinine level. We compared serum cystatin C level with other markers of GFR, such as serum creatinine level and creatinine clearance, and analyzed their variations based on iothalamate labeled with iodine 125 ((125)I-iothalamate) clearance ((125)I-ICl), used as the gold standard for GFR. The concentrations of the two different markers of GFR in patients with impaired renal function were classified according to (125)I-ICl. Twenty individuals with normal renal function ((125)I-ICl, 128 +/- 23 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were used as the control group. Serum cystatin C level showed a greater sensitivity (93.4%) than serum creatinine level (86.8%). Also, serum cystatin C showed the greatest proportion of increased values in patients with impaired renal function (100%) compared with serum creatinine level (92.15%). Serum cystatin C levels started to increase to greater than normal values when GFR was 88 mL/min/1.73 m(2), whereas serum creatinine level began to increase when GFR was 75 mL/min/1.73 m(2). These data suggest that measurement of serum cystatin C may be useful to estimate GFR, especially to detect mild reductions in GFR, and therefore may be important in the detection of early renal insufficiency in a variety of renal diseases for which early treatment is critical.
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              Microvascular endothelial injury and dysfunction during ischemic acute renal failure.

              The pathophysiology of ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) appears to involve a complex interplay between renal hemodynamics, tubular injury, and inflammatory processes. While the current paradigm of the pathophysiology of ischemic ARF invokes both sublethal and lethal tubular injury as being of paramount importance to diminished renal function, a growing body of evidence supports the contribution of altered renal vascular function in potentially initiating and subsequently extending the initial tubular injury. We propose that the "extension phase" of ischemic ARF involves alterations in renal perfusion, continued hypoxia, and inflammatory processes that all contribute to continued tubular cell injury. Vascular endothelial cell injury and dysfunction play a vital part in this extension phase. In the constitutive state the endothelium regulates migration of inflammatory cells into tissue, vascular tone and perfusion, vasopermeability, and prevents coagulation. Upon injury, the endothelial cell loses its ability to regulate these functions. This loss of regulatory function can have a subsequent detrimental impact upon renal function. Vascular congestion, edema formation, diminished blood flow, and infiltration of inflammatory cells have been documented in the corticomedullary junction of the kidney, but linking their genesis to vascular endothelial injury and dysfunction has been difficult. However, new investigative approaches, including multiphoton microscopy and the Tie2-GFP mouse, have been developed that will further our understanding of the roles endothelial injury and dysfunction play in the pathophysiology of ischemic ARF. This knowledge should provide new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to ischemic ARF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                July 1 2004
                July 1 2004
                : 114
                : 1
                : 5-14
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200422353
                © 2004
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/22353

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