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      Short-Term Effects and Early Complications of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration for Gastric Varices

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          The short-term effects of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) to treat gastric varices were evaluated by using computed tomography (CT) and gastroscopy (GF). The subjects were 77 patients who underwent BRTO to treat gastric varices. The short-term effects of BRTO were investigated with regard to ascites, pleural effusion, venous thrombus, and esophageal varices by comparing the findings of CT and GF performed within one month before and after BRTO. The mean duration of followup was 960.1 days. Ascites and pleural effusion were exacerbated after BRTO in 26 (33.8%) and 31 (40.3%), respectively. A significant difference in ascites exacerbation was noted in patients with hypoalbuminemia and a high Child-Pugh score, and a significant difference in exacerbation of pleural effusion was noted in patients with hypoalbuminemia. Venous thrombus was noted in 7 patients (9.1%). Esophageal varices were exacerbated in 14 (21.2%) of the 66 patients. The 2-year survival rate was 720 days, and significant differences were noted in the Child-Pugh classification and the concomitance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on multivariate analysis of prognosis-related factors. Conclusion. The frequencies of exacerbation of ascites, pleural effusion, and esophageal varices after BRTO were high but these may not be related to survival.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices.

           S Hirota,  M Tomita,  M Sako (1999)
          To evaluate the clinical efficacy, techniques, and complications associated with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. Between December 1994 and November 1997, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration was performed on 20 patients with gastric varices in danger of rupture and with gastrorenal shunts; three patients also had hepatic encephalopathy. The sclerosant was injected into the gastric varices during balloon occlusion. The degree of progression of the gastric varices and of collateral veins was classified into five grades, with grade 1 being least progression and grade 5 most progression; collateral veins that had developed were treated with embolization. Follow-up consisted of fiberoptic endoscopy and computed tomography. Technical success was achieved in all patients. Occlusion of collateral veins was essential for the occlusion of gastric varices with a grade greater than grade 2. The clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy in the three patients improved remarkably. Follow-up endoscopy 3 months after the procedure revealed the disappearance of gastric varices in 15 patients and reduced variceal size in five. During the follow-up period, 19 patients had no recurrence of gastric varices; three patients had aggravation of the esophageal varices. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is a feasible alternative to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for patients with large gastrorenal shunts or hepatic encephalopathy (or both).
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            Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt: long-term follow-up in 78 patients.

            Our aim was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for gastric varices with spontaneous gastrorenal shunt. A total of 78 patients with cirrhosis and with gastric varices, successfully treated by B-RTO, were enrolled in this study. Recurrence and bleeding of gastric varices and worsening of esophageal varices were endoscopically evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic factors for worsening of esophageal varices and survival. Recurrence of gastric varices was found in two patients; the 5-year recurrence rate was 2.7%. Bleeding of gastric varices occurred in only one patient after B-RTO; the 5-year bleeding rate was 1.5%. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 29 patients, and the worsening rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 27%, 58%, and 66%, respectively. These esophageal varices were endoscopically treated to prevent rupture. Multivariate analysis showed the presence of esophageal varices before B-RTO was a prognostic factor for worsening (relative risk, 4.956). At a median follow-up of 700 days (range, 137-2,339 days), the survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93%, 76%, and 54%, respectively. The prognostic factors associated with survival were presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (relative risk, 24.342) and the Child-Pugh classification (relative risk, 5.780). B-RTO is an effective method for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt and provides lower recurrence and bleeding rates. We believe that B-RTO can become a standard treatment for gastric varices with gastrorenal shunt, although treatment of worsened esophageal varices may be necessary after B-RTO.
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              Long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric varices and hepatic encephalopathy.

              To evaluate the long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for the treatment of gastric varices (GV) and hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 43 patients who had undergone B-RTO were evaluated, 32 with GV, two with hepatic encephalopathy, and nine with both. All but one had been consecutively followed up with gastrointestinal endoscopy for more than 1 year (3-60 months; mean, 30.44 months). Collateral veins of gastric varices were graded using balloon-occluded retrograde left adrenal venography. The relation of both worsening of esophageal varices (EV) and improved Child-Pugh score after B-RTO to the grades of collateral vein development was analyzed. The relapse-free survival and the prognostic factors for survival after B-RTO were also assessed. GV disappeared or decreased markedly in size, and hepatic encephalopathy was completely cured in all patients. Improvement in Child-Pugh score was observed in 21 patient (50.0%) 6 months after B-RTO, but in only 11 patients (25.6%) 1 year after B-RTO. Worsening of EV was seen in eight patients and was related to a worsened grade of collateral veins. Cumulative relapse-free survival rate was 90.8% at 1 year and 87.4% at 3 years after B-RTO. The most significant prognostic factor was Child-Pugh classification (relative risk: 4.16) B-RTO is a safe and effective treatment for patients with GV and hepatic encephalopathy. The most important prognostic factors are the extent of Child-Pugh classification.

                Author and article information

                ISRN Gastroenterol
                ISRN Gastroenterol
                ISRN Gastroenterology
                International Scholarly Research Network
                5 December 2012
                : 2012
                Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University Medical Center, Omori Hospital, 6-11-1 Omorinishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editors: H. Asakura and J.-P. Buts

                Copyright © 2012 Manabu Watanabe et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Clinical Study

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology


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