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      Drug Design, Development and Therapy (submit here)

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      Andrographolide suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin in phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated mast cells and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like mice model


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          Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been demonstrated to be an important immunologic factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The production of TSLP can be induced by a high level of intracellular calcium concentration and activation of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway. Andrographolide (ANDRO), a natural bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects in gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders through suppressing the NF-κB pathway.


          To explore the effect of ANDRO on the production of TSLP in human mast cells and AD mice model.


          We utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining assay to investigate the effects of ANDRO on AD.


          ANDRO ameliorated the increase in the intracellular calcium, protein, and messenger RNA levels of TSLP induced by phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187, through the blocking of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway in human mast cell line 1 cells. ANDRO, via oral or local administration, also attenuated clinical symptoms in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD mice model and suppressed the levels of TSLP in lesional skin.


          Taken together, ANDRO may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD through suppressing the expression of TSLP.

          Most cited references36

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          The epithelial cell-derived atopic dermatitis cytokine TSLP activates neurons to induce itch.

          Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic itch and inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects one in ten people. Patients suffering from severe AD eventually progress to develop asthma and allergic rhinitis, in a process known as the "atopic march." Signaling between epithelial cells and innate immune cells via the cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is thought to drive AD and the atopic march. Here, we report that epithelial cells directly communicate to cutaneous sensory neurons via TSLP to promote itch. We identify the ORAI1/NFAT calcium signaling pathway as an essential regulator of TSLP release from keratinocytes, the primary epithelial cells of the skin. TSLP then acts directly on a subset of TRPA1-positive sensory neurons to trigger robust itch behaviors. Our results support a model whereby calcium-dependent TSLP release by keratinocytes activates both primary afferent neurons and immune cells to promote inflammatory responses in the skin and airways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Assessment of clinical signs of atopic dermatitis: a systematic review and recommendation.

            Clinical signs are a core outcome domain for atopic dermatitis (AD) trials. The current lack of standardization of outcome measures in AD trials hampers evidence-based communication.
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              Involvement of receptor-interacting protein 2 in innate and adaptive immune responses.

              Host defences to microorganisms rely on a coordinated interplay between the innate and adaptive responses of immunity. Infection with intracellular bacteria triggers an immediate innate response requiring macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells, whereas subsequent activation of an adaptive response through development of T-helper subtype 1 cells (TH1) proceeds during persistent infection. To understand the physiological role of receptor-interacting protein 2 (Rip2), also known as RICK and CARDIAK, we generated mice with a targeted disruption of the gene coding for Rip2. Here we show that Rip2-deficient mice exhibit a profoundly decreased ability to defend against infection by the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Rip2-deficient macrophages infected with L. monocytogenes or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have decreased activation of NF-kappaB, whereas dominant negative Rip2 inhibited NF-kappaB activation mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 and Nod1. In vivo, Rip2-deficient mice were resistant to the lethal effects of LPS-induced endotoxic shock. Furthermore, Rip2 deficiency results in impaired interferon-gamma production in both TH1 and natural killer cells, attributed in part to defective interleukin-12-induced Stat4 activation. Our data reflect requirements for Rip2 in multiple pathways regulating immune and inflammatory responses.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                19 February 2016
                : 10
                : 781-791
                Department of Dermatology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhi-rong Yao; Hong Yu, Department of Dermatology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, People’s Republic of China, Fax +86 21 2507 8999, Email zryaoxh@ 123456sina.com ; smallgrass6@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2016 Li et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                atopic dermatitis,thymic stromal lymphopoietin,andrographolide,human mast cell


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