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      Biomarkers and short-term prognosis in COVID-19

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          The aim of our study was to analyse the short-term prognostic value of different biomarkers in patients with COVID-19.

          Methods

          We included patients admitted to emergency department with COVID-19 and available concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Patients were classified for each biomarker into two groups (low vs. high concentrations) according to their best cut-off point, and 30-day all-cause death was evaluated.

          Results

          After multivariate adjustment, cTnI ≥21 ng/L, D-dimer ≥1112 ng/mL, CRP ≥10 mg/dL and LDH ≥334 U/L at admission were associated with an increased risk of 30-day all-cause death (hazard ratio (HR) 4.30; 95% CI 1.74–10.58; p = 0.002; HR 3.35; 95% CI 1.58–7.13; p = 0.002; HR 2.25; 95% CI 1.13–4.50; p = 0.021; HR 2.00; 95% CI 1.04–3.84; p = 0.039, respectively). The area under the curve for cTnI was 0.825 (95% CI 0.759–0.892) and, in comparison, was significantly better than CRP (0.685; 95% CI 0.600–0.770; p = 0.009) and LDH (0.643; 95% CI 0.534–0.753; p = 0.006) but non-significantly better than D-dimer (0.756; 95% CI 0.674–0.837; p = 0.115).

          Conclusions

          In patients with COVID-19, increased concentrations of cTnI, D-dimer, CRP and LDH are associated with short-term mortality. Of these, cTnI provides better mortality risk prediction. However, differences with D-dimer were non-significant.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor

            Summary The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.
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              Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study

              Abstract Objective To delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Participants Among a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020. Main outcome measures Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms. Results The median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83; 73%) than in recovered patients (88; 55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113; 100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35; 51%), sepsis (113; 100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94; 77%), heart failure (41/83; 49%), alkalosis (14/35; 40%), hyperkalaemia (42; 37%), acute kidney injury (28; 25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23; 20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients. Conclusion Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomarkers
                Biomarkers
                Biomarkers
                Taylor & Francis
                1354-750X
                1366-5804
                18 January 2021
                2021
                : 1-8
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Cardiology, Joan XXIII University Hospital , Tarragona, Spain
                [b ]Pere Virgili Health Research Institute (IISPV) , Tarragona, Spain
                [c ]Department of Medicine and Surgery, Rovira i Virgili University , Tarragona, Spain
                [d ]Clinical Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Health, Camp de Tarragona-Terres de l’Ebre , Tarragona, Spain
                Author notes

                #Óscar M. Peiró was responsible for statistical design and analysis. E-mail: opi220290@gmail.com.

                Supplemental data for this article can be accessed here .

                CONTACT Alfredo Bardaji abardaji.hj23.ics@ 123456gencat.cat Department of Cardiology, Joan XXIII University Hospital , Dr Mallafré Guasch 4, Tarragona 43007, Spain 
                Article
                1874052
                10.1080/1354750X.2021.1874052
                7832452
                33426934
                © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 8, Words: 5776
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