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      Management of diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease

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          Glycemic control is essential to delay or prevent the onset of diabetic kidney disease. There are a number of glucose-lowering medications available but only a fraction of them can be used safely in chronic kidney disease and many of them need an adjustment in dosing. The ideal target hemoglobin A1c is approximately 7 % but this target is adjusted based on the needs of the patient. Diabetes control should be optimized for each individual patient, with measures to reduce diabetes-related complications and minimize adverse events. Overall care of diabetes necessitates attention to multiple aspects, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, and often, multidisciplinary care is needed.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Sustained effect of intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus on development and progression of diabetic nephropathy: the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study.

          The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated the benefits of intensive treatment of diabetes in reducing glycemic levels and slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The DCCT cohort has been examined annually for another 8 years as part of the follow-up Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. During the EDIC study, glycemic levels no longer differed substantially between the 2 original treatment groups. To determine the long-term effects of intensive vs conventional diabetes treatment during the DCCT on kidney function during the EDIC study. Observational study begun in 1993 (following DCCT closeout) in 28 medical centers in the United States and Canada. Participants were 1349 (of 1375) EDIC volunteers who had kidney evaluation at years 7 or 8. Development of microalbuminuria, clinical-grade albuminuria, hypertension, or increase in serum creatinine level. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses, comparing the 2 original DCCT treatment groups. New cases of microalbuminuria occurred during the EDIC study in 39 (6.8%) of the participants originally assigned to the intensive-treatment group vs 87 (15.8%) of those assigned to the conventional-treatment group, for a 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39%-73%) reduction in odds, adjusted for baseline values, compared with a 59% (95% CI, 36%-74%) reduction at the end of the DCCT (P<.001 for both comparisons). New cases of clinical albuminuria occurred in 9 (1.4%) of the participants in the original intensive-treatment group vs 59 (9.4%) of those in the original conventional-treatment group, representing an 84% reduction in odds (95% CI, 67%-92%), compared with a reduction of 57% (95% CI, -1% to +81%) at the end of the DCCT. Fewer cases of hypertension (prevalence at year 8, 29.9% vs 40.3%; P<.001) developed in the original intensive-treatment group. Significantly fewer participants reached a serum creatinine level of 2 mg/dL or greater in the intensive-treatment vs the conventional-treatment group (5 vs 19, P =.004), but there were no differences in mean log clearance values. Although small numbers of patients required dialysis and/or transplantation, fewer patients experienced either of these outcomes in the intensive group (4 vs 7, P =.36). The persistent beneficial effects on albumin excretion and the reduced incidence of hypertension 7 to 8 years after the end of the DCCT suggest that previous intensive treatment of diabetes with near-normal glycemia during the DCCT has an extended benefit in delaying progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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            Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease: a systematic review.

            Metformin is widely viewed as the best initial pharmacological option to lower glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the drug is contraindicated in many individuals with impaired kidney function because of concerns of lactic acidosis.
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              (6) Glycemic targets.


                Author and article information

                Clin Diabetes Endocrinol
                Clin Diabetes Endocrinol
                Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 June 2015
                4 June 2015
                : 1
                GRID grid.16753.36, ISNI 0000000122993507, Division of Endocrinology, , Metabolism, and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, ; 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 530, 60611 Chicago, Illinois USA
                © Hahr and Molitch; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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