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      Development of a questionnaire to evaluate patients’ awareness of cardiovascular disease risk in England’s National Health Service Health Check preventive cardiovascular programme

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          Abstract

          Background

          The National Health Service (NHS) Health Check is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management programme in England aiming to increase CVD risk awareness among people at increased risk of CVD. There is no tool to assess the effectiveness of the programme in communicating CVD risk to patients.

          Aims

          The aim of this paper was to develop a questionnaire examining patients’ CVD risk awareness for use in health service research evaluations of the NHS Health Check programme.

          Methods

          We developed an 85-item questionnaire to determine patients’ views of their risk of CVD. The questionnaire was based on a review of the relevant literature. After review by an expert panel and focus group discussion, 22 items were dropped and 2 new items were added. The resulting 65-item questionnaire with satisfactory content validity (content validity indices≥0.80) and face validity was tested on 110 NHS Health Check attendees in primary care in a cross-sectional study between 21 May 2014 and 28 July 2014.

          Results

          Following analyses of data, we reduced the questionnaire from 65 to 26 items. The 26-item questionnaire constitutes four scales: Knowledge of CVD Risk and Prevention, Perceived Risk of Heart Attack/Stroke, Perceived Benefits and Intention to Change Behaviour and Healthy Eating Intentions. Perceived Risk (Cronbach’s α=0.85) and Perceived Benefits and Intention to Change Behaviour (Cronbach’s α=0.82) have satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s α≥0.70). Healthy Eating Intentions (Cronbach’s α=0.56) is below minimum threshold for reliability but acceptable for a three-item scale.

          Conclusions

          The resulting questionnaire, with satisfactory reliability and validity, may be used in assessing patients’ awareness of CVD risk among NHS Health Check attendees.

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          Most cited references33

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          Psychometric Theory.

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            In search of how people change. Applications to addictive behaviors.

            How people intentionally change addictive behaviors with and without treatment is not well understood by behavioral scientists. This article summarizes research on self-initiated and professionally facilitated change of addictive behaviors using the key trans-theoretical constructs of stages and processes of change. Modification of addictive behaviors involves progression through five stages--pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance--and individuals typically recycle through these stages several times before termination of the addiction. Multiple studies provide strong support for these stages as well as for a finite and common set of change processes used to progress through the stages. Research to date supports a trans-theoretical model of change that systematically integrates the stages with processes of change from diverse theories of psychotherapy.
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              Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Users?Guide

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2017
                25 September 2017
                : 7
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ] departmentDepartment of Primary Care and Public Health , Imperial College London , London, UK
                [2 ] departmentDepartment of Psychology , City University London , London, UK
                [3 ] Health Diagnostics Ltd , Chester, UK
                [4 ] departmentDepartment of Applied Health Research , University College London , London, UK
                [5 ] Institute of Global Health Innovation, Imperial College London , London, UK
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Maria Woringer; m.woringer@ 123456imperial.ac.uk

                Presented at the NHS Health Check 2015 – Improvement through Collaboration conference and the First International Conference of Public Health, Primary Care and Congress of Person Centred Medicine.

                Article
                bmjopen-2016-014413
                10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014413
                5623403
                28947435
                5dc0c012-e2cc-4a79-894f-b8a8a8858202
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Diagnostics Evidence Co-operatives (DEC) / Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC);
                Categories
                Communication
                Research
                1506
                1684
                Custom metadata
                unlocked

                Medicine
                cardiovascular disease,primary prevention,risk assessment,questionnaire
                Medicine
                cardiovascular disease, primary prevention, risk assessment, questionnaire

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