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      What’s Hot in HIV in 2019—A Basic and Translational Science Summary for Clinicians From IDWeek 2019

      Open Forum Infectious Diseases
      Oxford University Press
      HIV, updates, translational research, clinicians

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          The field of HIV research is constantly evolving, and every year brings advances that draw us closer to ending the HIV epidemic. Here, we present a nonexhaustive overview of select notable studies in HIV prevention, cure, and treatment, published in the last year as presented at IDWeek 2019: What’s Hot in HIV Basic Science. The past year brought interesting results on the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies for treatment and prevention, gene-editing approaches to HIV cure, and new ways to measure the HIV reservoir. We also saw encouraging results on novel HIV vaccine delivery strategies and how these may influence effective immune responses. Lastly, in the area of inflammation, some mechanistic insights were made into the contribution of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and potential new targets to reduce HIV-associated chronic inflammation. The future from where we stand is bright for HIV research, with much more to look forward to in 2020.


          In the rapidly evolving field of HIV, we present a summary for clinicians on 'What’s Hot in HIV Basic Science' from 2019. We highlight key advances in HIV treatment, prevention and cure, setting the stage for the new decade.

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          Most cited references29

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          Dynamics of HIV viremia and antibody seroconversion in plasma donors: implications for diagnosis and staging of primary HIV infection.

          The characterization of primary HIV infection by the analysis of serial plasma samples from newly infected persons using multiple standard viral assays. A retrospective study involving two sets of archived samples from HIV-infected plasma donors. (A) 435 samples from 51 donors detected by anti-HIV enzyme immunoassays donated during 1984-1994; (B) 145 specimens from 44 donors detected by p24 antigen screening donated during 1996-1998. Two US plasma products companies. The timepoints of appearance of HIV-1 markers and viral load concentrations during primary HIV infection. The pattern of sequential emergence of viral markers in the 'A' panels was highly consistent, allowing the definition and estimation of the duration of six sequential stages. From the 'B' panels, the viral load at p24 antigen seroconversion was estimated by regression analysis at 10 000 copies/ml (95% CI 2000-93 000) and the HIV replication rate at 0.35 log copies/ml/day, corresponding to a doubling time in the preseroconversion phase of 20.5 h (95% CI 18.2-23.4 h). Consequently, an RNA test with 50 copies/ml sensitivity would detect HIV infection approximately 7 days before a p24 antigen test, and 12 days before a sensitive anti-HIV test. The sequential emergence of assay reactivity allows the classification of primary HIV-1 infection into distinct laboratory stages, which may facilitate the diagnosis of recent infection and stratification of patients enrolled in clinical trials. Quantitative analysis of preseroconversion replication rates of HIV is useful for projecting the yield and predictive value of assays targeting primary HIV infection.
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            Adenoviruses as vaccine vectors

            Adenoviruses have transitioned from tools for gene replacement therapy to bona fide vaccine delivery vehicles. They are attractive vaccine vectors as they induce both innate and adaptive immune responses in mammalian hosts. Currently, adenovirus vectors are being tested as subunit vaccine systems for numerous infectious agents ranging from malaria to HIV-1. Additionally, they are being explored as vaccines against a multitude of tumor-associated antigens. In this review we describe the molecular biology of adenoviruses as well as ways the adenovirus vectors can be manipulated to enhance their efficacy as vaccine carriers. We describe methods of evaluating immune responses to transgene products expressed by adenoviral vectors and discuss data on adenoviral vaccines to a selected number of pathogens. Last, we comment on the limitations of using human adenoviral vectors and provide alternatives to circumvent these problems. This field is growing at an exciting and rapid pace, thus we have limited our scope to the use of adenoviral vectors as vaccines against viral pathogens.
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              CRISPR-Edited Stem Cells in a Patient with HIV and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia


                Author and article information

                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infect Dis
                Open Forum Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (US )
                March 2020
                13 February 2020
                13 February 2020
                : 7
                : 3
                : ofaa053
                Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Colleen F. Kelley, MD, MPH, The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, 500 Irvin Ct, Suite 200, Decatur, GA 30030 ( colleen.kelley@ 123456emory.edu ).
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                : 16 December 2019
                : 10 February 2020
                : 06 February 2020
                : 03 March 2020
                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Review Article (INVITED)
                Editor's Choice

                hiv,updates,translational research, clinicians
                hiv, updates, translational research, clinicians


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