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      Better late than early: The influence of timing on apology effectiveness

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      Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 12

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          Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement.

          Interpersonal forgiving was conceptualized in the context of a 2-factor motivational system that governs people's responses to interpersonal offenses. Four studies were conducted to examine the extent to which forgiving could be predicted with relationship-level variables such as satisfaction, commitment, and closeness; offense-level variables such as apology and impact of the offense; and social-cognitive variables such as offender-focused empathy and rumination about the offense. Also described is the development of the transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory--a self-report measure designed to assess the 2-component motivational system (Avoidance and Revenge) posited to underlie forgiving. The measure demonstrated a variety of desirable psychometric properties, commending its use for future research. As predicted, empathy, apology, rumination, and several indexes of relationship closeness were associated with self-reported forgiving.
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            Apology as aggression control: its role in mediating appraisal of and response to harm.

             M Kameda,  N Agarie,  K Ohbuchi (1989)
            Two studies examined the effects of an apology on a victim's aggression and explored the psychological mechanisms underlying such effects. In Study 1, female undergraduates were psychologically harmed and then received an apology by another female student. In Study 2, male undergraduates were asked to role play a victim in a hypothetical harm situation. Results indicate that when the harm-doers apologized, as opposed to when they did not, the victim-subjects refrained from severe aggression against them. Regression analyses suggested that such aggression-inhibitory effects of an apology were mediated by impression improvement, emotional mitigation, and reduction in desire for an apology within the victims. It was also found that when the harm was severe, such effects of an apology on aggression were attenuated. The more severe the harm is, the more extensive of an apology may be needed to alleviate the victim's anger and aggression.
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              Consumer responses to service failures: Influence of procedural and interactional fairness perceptions

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
                Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
                Elsevier BV
                00221031
                March 2005
                March 2005
                : 41
                : 2
                : 201-207
                Article
                10.1016/j.jesp.2004.07.007
                © 2005

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