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      Rejuvenation of tendon stem/progenitor cells for functional tendon regeneration through platelet-derived exosomes loaded with recombinant Yap1

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          Inflammation and cancer.

          Recent data have expanded the concept that inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Many cancers arise from sites of infection, chronic irritation and inflammation. It is now becoming clear that the tumour microenvironment, which is largely orchestrated by inflammatory cells, is an indispensable participant in the neoplastic process, fostering proliferation, survival and migration. In addition, tumour cells have co-opted some of the signalling molecules of the innate immune system, such as selectins, chemokines and their receptors for invasion, migration and metastasis. These insights are fostering new anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches to cancer development.
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            Isolation and characterization of exosomes from cell culture supernatants and biological fluids.

            Exosomes are small membrane vesicles found in cell culture supernatants and in different biological fluids. Exosomes form in a particular population of endosomes, called multivesicular bodies (MVBs), by inward budding into the lumen of the compartment. Upon fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane, these internal vesicles are secreted. Exosomes possess a defined set of membrane and cytosolic proteins. The physiological function of exosomes is still a matter of debate, but increasing results in various experimental systems suggest their involvement in multiple biological processes. Because both cell-culture supernatants and biological fluids contain different types of lipid membranes, it is critical to perform high-quality exosome purification. This unit describes different approaches for exosome purification from various sources, and discusses methods to evaluate the purity and homogeneity of the purified exosome preparations.
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              Cellular senescence in ageing: from mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities

              Cellular senescence, first described in vitro in 1961, has become a focus for biotech companies that target it to ameliorate a variety of human conditions. Eminently characterized by a permanent proliferation arrest, cellular senescence occurs in response to endogenous and exogenous stresses, including telomere dysfunction, oncogene activation and persistent DNA damage. Cellular senescence can also be a controlled programme occurring in diverse biological processes, including embryonic development. Senescent cell extrinsic activities, broadly related to the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, amplify the impact of cell-intrinsic proliferative arrest and contribute to impaired tissue regeneration, chronic age-associated diseases and organismal ageing. This Review discusses the mechanisms and modulators of cellular senescence establishment and induction of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, and provides an overview of cellular senescence as an emerging opportunity to intervene through senolytic and senomorphic therapies in ageing and ageing-associated diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Acta Biomaterialia
                Acta Biomaterialia
                Elsevier BV
                17427061
                April 2023
                April 2023
                : 161
                : 80-99
                Article
                10.1016/j.actbio.2023.02.018
                36804538
                5de94fd2-9b7c-4b4a-931f-96679f3a8a13
                © 2023

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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