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      Nudol, a phenanthrene derivative from Dendrobium nobile, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibits migration in osteosarcoma cells

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          Purpose: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy of the bone in children and adolescents. There is an urgent need for the development of novel drugs to treat it. Nudol(1), a phenanthrene compound from the traditional Chinese medicine, Dendrobium nobile, exhibited antiproliferative activity against osteosarcoma cells. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of nudol(1) as potential chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.

          Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Cell-cycle phase distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. DAPI staining was used for morphology observation. Apoptosis was analysis via flow cytometry. The expression levels of mRNA and protein related to capase-mediated apoptotic pathway were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting. Migration was determined by wound healing assays.

          Results: Nudol(1) significantly decreased cell viability in several cancer cell lines. Moreover, nudol(1) caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in U2OS cells, and it also induced cell apoptosis through the caspase-dependent pathway. In addition, treatment with nudol(1) suppressed the migration of U2OS cells.

          Conclusion: The present study, for the first time, demonstrated effects of nudol(1) on OS in vitro and the potential molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, nudol(1) might have the potential for further development as a lead compound against bone tumor.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells.

          A common feature of follicular lymphoma, the most prevalent haematological malignancy in humans, is a chromosome translocation (t(14;18] that has coupled the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus to a chromosome 18 gene denoted bcl-2. By analogy with the translocated c-myc oncogene in other B-lymphoid tumours bcl-2 is a candidate oncogene, but no biological effects of bcl-2 have yet been reported. To test whether bcl-2 influences the growth of haematopoietic cells, either alone or together with a deregulated c-myc gene, we have introduced a human bcl-2 complementary DNA using a retroviral vector into bone marrow cells from either normal or E mu-myc transgenic mice, in which B-lineage cells constitutively express the c-myc gene. Bcl-2 cooperated with c-myc to promote proliferation of B-cell precursors, some of which became tumorigenic. To determine how bcl-2 expression impinges on growth factor requirements, the gene was introduced into a lymphoid and a myeloid cell line that require interleukin 3 (IL-3). In the absence of IL-3, bcl-2 promoted the survival of the infected cells but they persisted in a G0 state, rather than proliferating. These results argue that bcl-2 provided a distinct survival signal to the cell and may contribute to neoplasia by allowing a clone to persist until other oncogenes, such as c-myc, become activated.
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            Review of research on Dendrobium, a prized folk medicine.

            Medicinal plants of the Dendrobium genus are highly prized, and hence, methodologies have been developed to authenticate Dendrobium drugs from its adulterants. Many bioactive constituents of Dendrobium species have been identified. The macromolecules included lectins; the enzymes chalcone synthase, sucrose synthase, and cytokinin oxidase; and polysaccharides. The polysaccharides display immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective activities. Alkaloids exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and neuroprotective activities. Other compounds manifest antioxidant, anticancer, and immunomodulatory.
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              Antioxidative activity of natural products from plants.

               Megan F. Liu,  Z. Wang,  H. Ng (2000)
              A variety of flavonoids, lignans, an alkaloid, a bisbenzyl, coumarins and terpenes isolated from Chinese herbs was tested for antioxidant activity as reflected in the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat brain and kidney homogenates and rat erythrocyte hemolysis. The pro-oxidant activities of the aforementioned compounds were assessed by their effects on bleomycin-induced DNA damage. The flavonoids baicalin and luteolin-7-glucuronide-6'-methyl ester, the lignan 4'-demethyldeoxypodophyllotoxin, the alkaloid tetrahydropalmatine, the bisbenzyl erianin and the coumarin xanthotoxol exhibited potent antioxidative activity in both lipid peroxidation and hemolysis assays. The flavonoid rutin and the terpene tanshinone I manifested potent antioxidative activity in the lipid peroxidation assay but no inhibitory activity in the hemolysis assay. The lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin, the flavonoid naringin and the coumarins columbianetin, bergapten and angelicin slightly inhibited lipid peroxidation in brain and kidney homogenates. It is worth stressing that the compounds with antioxidant effects in this assay, with the exception of tetrahydropalmatin and tanshinone I, have at least one free aromatic hydroxyl group in structure. Obviously, the aromatic hydroxyl group is very important for antioxidative effects of the compounds. None of the compounds tested exerted an obvious pro-oxidant effect.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                29 July 2019
                : 13
                : 2591-2601
                [1 ] School of Biological Science and Technology, University of Jinan , Jinan, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ] Central Laboratory, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University , Jinan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Na Liu; Hua Zhang School of Biological Science and Technology, University of Jinan , 336 West Road of Nan Xinzhuang, Jinan250022, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 5 318 973 6199 Email mls_liun@ 123456ujn.edu.cn ; bio_zhangh@ 123456ujn.edu.cn
                © 2019 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 41, Pages: 11
                Original Research


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