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      Petrographic and geochemical analyses to characterise the source of built historical natural stones — a case study of the volcanic stones from historical quarries and Baoguosi Temple in the city of Ningbo, China

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          Abstract

          Characterising and sourcing natural stones are essential for not only understanding the historical information carried by heritage buildings and cultural heritage sites, but also providing necessary data for restoration and conservations. Petrographic analyses by polarised microscopy, along with the integrated chemical data acquired by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, allowed us to ascertain the compositions of stone materials. In this paper it is applied on samples collected from quarries of “three famous stones (Meiyuanshi-, Xiaoxishi-, and Dayinshi-stone)” in Ningbo and from the Sumeru platform in the main hall of Baoguosi Temple (Ningbo, Zhejiang, China). Comparison of petrographic features, major and trace elements of the stones studied indicated that they are all tuffs but of different characteristics and origin. Moreover, we were able to confirm that the Sumeru platform in Baoguosi is made of Meiyuanshi-stone. The results have demonstrated the suitability of the approach and present a practicable solution for other stone buildings.

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          Most cited references5

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          A Chemical Classification of Volcanic Rocks Based on the Total Alkali-Silica Diagram

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            Strontium isotopes in weathering profiles, deep-sea sediments, and sedimentary rocks

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              The geochemistry of some igneous rock series: Part II

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                guoxw@shu.edu.cn
                337908857@qq.com
                714066165@qq.com
                daishibing@tongji.edu.cn
                Journal
                Built Heritage
                Built Heritage
                Springer Nature Singapore (Singapore )
                2662-6802
                5 June 2023
                5 June 2023
                2023
                : 7
                : 1
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.39436.3b, ISNI 0000 0001 2323 5732, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, , Shanghai University, ; Shanghai, 200444 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.39436.3b, ISNI 0000 0001 2323 5732, Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage, , Shanghai University, ; Shanghai, 200444 China
                [3 ]Tianyige Museum, Ningbo, 315010 China
                [4 ]GRID grid.24516.34, ISNI 0000000123704535, Architectural Conservation Laboratory, College of Architecture and Urban Planning, , Tongji University, ; Shanghai, 200092 China
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1674-7497
                Article
                91
                10.1186/s43238-023-00091-3
                10239709
                5deb72a2-71d9-4fe8-a7e4-18e2c811d49b
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 8 March 2023
                : 8 May 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 51978472
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Baoguosi Ancient Architecture Museum
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China
                Award ID: 2019YFC1520500
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © Tongji University 2023

                historical built natural stones,meiyuanshi-stone,petrography,geochemistry,sources of historical stone

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