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      Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

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          Abstract

          Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined.

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          Biofuels from microalgae—A review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products

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            Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

            Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              An outlook on microalgal biofuels.

              Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing for arable land. Worldwide, research and demonstration programs are being carried out to develop the technology needed to expand algal lipid production from a craft to a major industrial process. Although microalgae are not yet produced at large scale for bulk applications, recent advances-particularly in the methods of systems biology, genetic engineering, and biorefining-present opportunities to develop this process in a sustainable and economical way within the next 10 to 15 years.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Foods
                Foods
                foods
                Foods
                MDPI
                2304-8158
                26 April 2017
                May 2017
                : 6
                : 5
                : 33
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Food Biosciences Department, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin D15 KN3K, Ireland; Stephen.Bleakley@ 123456teagasc.ie
                [2 ]School of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Health and Environment, Sustainability and Health Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin Street, Dublin D08 NF82, Ireland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: Maria.Hayes@ 123456teagasc.ie ; Tel.: +353-1-805-9957
                Article
                foods-06-00033
                10.3390/foods6050033
                5447909
                28445408
                5debd00f-d8d8-4d55-a422-1ff88d169818
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 21 March 2017
                : 20 April 2017
                Categories
                Review

                seaweed,microalgae,peptides,phycobiliproteins,biorefinery,bioavailability,extraction methods,legislation

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