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      Depression in patients with peripheral arterial disease: A systematic review

      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , 4 , 1

      European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing

      SAGE Publications

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          Abstract

          The association between cardiovascular disease and depression is well-established. Peripheral arterial disease arises from atherosclerosis like other cardiovascular disease, but unlike other cardiovascular disease, it impairs ambulation and lower extremity function. Given peripheral arterial disease's unique characteristics and underrepresentation in mental health research, we aimed to: (a) assess the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among peripheral arterial disease patients compared to coronary artery disease rates, (b) assess whether an independent association between peripheral arterial disease and depression exists, and (c) identify associated factors that may be targeted for intervention.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care.

          The current combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have involved U.S. military personnel in major ground combat and hazardous security duty. Studies are needed to systematically assess the mental health of members of the armed services who have participated in these operations and to inform policy with regard to the optimal delivery of mental health care to returning veterans. We studied members of four U.S. combat infantry units (three Army units and one Marine Corps unit) using an anonymous survey that was administered to the subjects either before their deployment to Iraq (n=2530) or three to four months after their return from combat duty in Iraq or Afghanistan (n=3671). The outcomes included major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which were evaluated on the basis of standardized, self-administered screening instruments. Exposure to combat was significantly greater among those who were deployed to Iraq than among those deployed to Afghanistan. The percentage of study subjects whose responses met the screening criteria for major depression, generalized anxiety, or PTSD was significantly higher after duty in Iraq (15.6 to 17.1 percent) than after duty in Afghanistan (11.2 percent) or before deployment to Iraq (9.3 percent); the largest difference was in the rate of PTSD. Of those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder, only 23 to 40 percent sought mental health care. Those whose responses were positive for a mental disorder were twice as likely as those whose responses were negative to report concern about possible stigmatization and other barriers to seeking mental health care. This study provides an initial look at the mental health of members of the Army and the Marine Corps who were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our findings indicate that among the study groups there was a significant risk of mental health problems and that the subjects reported important barriers to receiving mental health services, particularly the perception of stigma among those most in need of such care. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Functional decline in peripheral arterial disease: associations with the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms.

            Among individuals with lower-extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD), specific leg symptoms and the ankle brachial index (ABI) are cross-sectionally related to the degree of functional impairment. However, relations between these clinical characteristics and objectively measured functional decline are unknown. To define whether PAD, ABI, and specific leg symptoms predict functional decline at 2-year follow-up. Prospective cohort study among 676 consecutively identified individuals (aged > or =55 years) with and without PAD (n = 417 and n = 259, respectively), with baseline functional assessments occurring between October 1, 1998, and January 31, 2000, and follow-up assessments scheduled 1 and 2 years thereafter. PAD was defined as ABI less than 0.90, and participants with PAD were categorized at baseline into 1 of 5 mutually exclusive symptom groups. Mean annual changes in 6-minute walk performance and in usual-paced and fast-paced 4-m walking velocity, adjusted for age, sex, race, prior-year functioning, comorbid diseases, body mass index, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and patterns of missing data. Lower baseline ABI values were associated with greater mean (95% confidence interval) annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-73.0 [-142 to -4.2] ft for ABI <0.50 vs -58.8 [-83.5 to -34.0] ft for ABI 0.50 to <0.90 vs -12.6 [-40.3 to 15.1] ft for ABI 0.90-1.50, P =.02). Compared with participants without PAD, PAD participants with leg pain on exertion and rest at baseline had greater mean annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-111 [-173 to -50.0] ft vs -8.67 [-36.9 to 19.5] ft, P =.004), usual-pace 4-meter walking velocity (-0.06 [-0.09 to -0.02] m/sec vs -0.01 (-0.03 to 0.003] m/sec, P =.02), and fastest-pace 4-meter walking velocity (-0.07 [-0.11 to -0.03] m/sec vs -0.02 [-0.04 to -0.006] m/sec, P =.046). Compared with participants without PAD, asymptomatic PAD was associated with greater mean annual decline in 6-minute walk performance (-76.8 (-135 to -18.6] ft vs -8.67 (-36.9 to 19.5] ft, P =.04) and an increased odds ratio for becoming unable to walk for 6 minutes continuously (3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-8.36; P =.002). Baseline ABI and the nature of leg symptoms predict the degree of functional decline at 2-year follow-up. Previously reported lack of worsening in claudication symptoms over time in patients with PAD may be more related to declining functional performance to than lack of disease progression.
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              The Relationship of Depression to Cardiovascular Disease

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
                European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
                SAGE Publications
                1474-5151
                1873-1953
                December 19 2016
                March 2017
                January 04 2017
                March 2017
                : 16
                : 3
                : 181-193
                Affiliations
                [1 ]VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System, USA
                [2 ]Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Denver VA Medical Center, USA
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, USA
                [4 ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado, USA
                Article
                10.1177/1474515116687222
                28051339
                © 2017

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