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      HIV-1 entry into quiescent primary lymphocytes: Molecular analysis reveals a labile, latent viral structure

      , , , , ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Productive infection of human T lymphocytes by HIV-1 is dependent upon proliferation of the infected cell. Nonproliferating quiescent T cells can be infected by HIV-1 and harbor the virus in an inactive state until subsequent mitogenic stimulation. We use a modification of the polymerase chain reaction method, which is both sensitive and quantitative, to demonstrate that HIV-1 DNA synthesis is initiated in infected quiescent T cells at levels comparable with those of activated T cells. However, unlike that of activated T cells, the viral genome is not completely reverse transcribed in quiescent cells. Although this viral DNA structure can persist in quiescent cells as a latent form, it is labile. We discuss the lability of this HIV-1 DNA structure in relation to a "self-restricting persistent infection" by HIV-1 and propose that this may explain the low percentage of infected cells in the circulation of AIDS patients.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase.

          A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, greatly simplifies the procedure and, by enabling the amplification reaction to be performed at higher temperatures, significantly improves the specificity, yield, sensitivity, and length of products that can be amplified. Single-copy genomic sequences were amplified by a factor of more than 10 million with very high specificity, and DNA segments up to 2000 base pairs were readily amplified. In addition, the method was used to amplify and detect a target DNA molecule present only once in a sample of 10(5) cells.
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            An inducible transcription factor activates expression of human immunodeficiency virus in T cells.

             G Nabel,  D Baltimore (2015)
            Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from latently infected T lymphocytes can be induced with compounds that activate the cells to secrete lymphokines. The elements in the HIV genome which control activation are not known but expression might be regulated through a variety of DNA elements. The cis-acting control elements of the viral genome are enhancer and promoter regions. The virus also encodes trans-acting factors specified by the tat-III and art genes. We have examined whether products specific to activated T cells might stimulate viral transcription by binding to regions on viral DNA. Activation of T cells, which increases HIV expression up to 50-fold, correlated with induction of a DNA binding protein indistinguishable from a recognized transcription factor, called NF-kappa B, with binding sites in the viral enhancer. Mutation of these binding sites abolished inducibility. That NF-kappa B acts in synergy with the viral tat-III gene product to enhance HIV expression in T cells may have implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
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              Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons.

              We used end-point-dilution cultures to measure the level of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and plasma of 54 infected patients who were not receiving antiviral chemotherapy. HIV-1 was recovered from the plasma and PBMC of every seropositive patient, but from none of 22 seronegative control subjects. The mean titers in plasma were 30, 3500, and 3200 tissue-culture-infective doses (TCID) per milliliter for patients with asymptomatic infection, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the AIDS-related complex, respectively. In PBMC, the mean titers were significantly higher for symptomatic patients (AIDS, 2200, and AIDS-related complex, 2700 TCID per 10(6) PBMC) than asymptomatic patients (20 TCID per 10(6) PBMC). The values for the symptomatic patients were considered to indicate that at least 1 in 400 circulating mononuclear cells harbored HIV-1. The HIV-1 titers of seven patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex treated with zidovudine for four weeks decreased significantly in plasma but not in PBMC. In addition, the mean titer in the plasma of 20 patients receiving long-term zidovudine treatment (130 TCID per milliliter) was 25-fold lower than the mean for comparable untreated patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. We conclude that the levels of HIV-1 in plasma and PBMC are much higher than previous estimates. This high degree of HIV-1 viremia raises the possibility that the direct cytopathic effect of this retrovirus alone may be sufficient to explain much of the pathogenesis of AIDS.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                April 1990
                April 1990
                : 61
                : 2
                : 213-222
                Article
                10.1016/0092-8674(90)90802-L
                2331748
                © 1990

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