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      Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Photothermal Therapy

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          Abstract

          Photothermal therapy is a kind of therapy based on increasing the temperature of tumoral cells above 42 °C. To this aim, cells must be illuminated with a laser, and the energy of the radiation is transformed in heat. Usually, the employed radiation belongs to the near-infrared radiation range. At this range, the absorption and scattering of the radiation by the body is minimal. Thus, tissues are almost transparent. To improve the efficacy and selectivity of the energy-to-heat transduction, a light-absorbing material, the photothermal agent, must be introduced into the tumor. At present, a vast array of compounds are available as photothermal agents. Among the substances used as photothermal agents, gold-based compounds are one of the most employed. However, the undefined toxicity of this metal hinders their clinical investigations in the long run. Magnetic nanoparticles are a good alternative for use as a photothermal agent in the treatment of tumors. Such nanoparticles, especially those formed by iron oxides, can be used in combination with other substances or used themselves as photothermal agents. The combination of magnetic nanoparticles with other photothermal agents adds more capabilities to the therapeutic system: the nanoparticles can be directed magnetically to the site of interest (the tumor) and their distribution in tumors and other organs can be imaged. When used alone, magnetic nanoparticles present, in theory, an important limitation: their molar absorption coefficient in the near infrared region is low. The controlled clustering of the nanoparticles can solve this drawback. In such conditions, the absorption of the indicated radiation is higher and the conversion of energy in heat is more efficient than in individual nanoparticles. On the other hand, it can be designed as a therapeutic system, in which the heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles after irradiation with infrared light can release a drug attached to the nanoparticles in a controlled manner. This form of targeted drug delivery seems to be a promising tool of chemo-phototherapy. Finally, the heating efficiency of iron oxide nanoparticles can be increased if the infrared radiation is combined with an alternating magnetic field.

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          Most cited references 113

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          Core/shell nanoparticles: classes, properties, synthesis mechanisms, characterization, and applications.

           S. Paria,  Rajib Ghosh (2012)
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            Physical-chemical aspects of protein corona: relevance to in vitro and in vivo biological impacts of nanoparticles.

            It is now clearly emerging that besides size and shape, the other primary defining element of nanoscale objects in biological media is their long-lived protein ("hard") corona. This corona may be expressed as a durable, stabilizing coating of the bare surface of nanoparticle (NP) monomers, or it may be reflected in different subpopulations of particle assemblies, each presenting a durable protein coating. Using the approach and concepts of physical chemistry, we relate studies on the composition of the protein corona at different plasma concentrations with structural data on the complexes both in situ and free from excess plasma. This enables a high degree of confidence in the meaning of the hard protein corona in a biological context. Here, we present the protein adsorption for two compositionally different NPs, namely sulfonated polystyrene and silica NPs. NP-protein complexes are characterized by differential centrifugal sedimentation, dynamic light scattering, and zeta-potential both in situ and once isolated from plasma as a function of the protein/NP surface area ratio. We then introduce a semiquantitative determination of their hard corona composition using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, which allows us to follow the total binding isotherms for the particles, identifying simultaneously the nature and amount of the most relevant proteins as a function of the plasma concentration. We find that the hard corona can evolve quite significantly as one passes from protein concentrations appropriate to in vitro cell studies to those present in in vivo studies, which has deep implications for in vitro-in vivo extrapolations and will require some consideration in the future.
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              Photodynamic therapy.

               Q Peng,  M Korbelik,  G Jori (1998)
              Photodynamic therapy involves administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing agent, which may require metabolic synthesis (i.e., a prodrug), followed by activation of the agent by light of a specific wavelength. This therapy results in a sequence of photochemical and photobiologic processes that cause irreversible photodamage to tumor tissues. Results from preclinical and clinical studies conducted worldwide over a 25-year period have established photodynamic therapy as a useful treatment approach for some cancers. Since 1993, regulatory approval for photodynamic therapy involving use of a partially purified, commercially available hematoporphyrin derivative compound (Photofrin) in patients with early and advanced stage cancer of the lung, digestive tract, and genitourinary tract has been obtained in Canada, The Netherlands, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. We have attempted to conduct and present a comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding field. Mechanisms of subcellular and tumor localization of photosensitizing agents, as well as of molecular, cellular, and tumor responses associated with photodynamic therapy, are discussed. Technical issues regarding light dosimetry are also considered.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules : A Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                28 June 2018
                July 2018
                : 23
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Avda., Joan XXIII, 27–31, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; mabusquetsvinas@ 123456ub.edu
                [2 ]Nstitut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, IN2UB, Facultat de Química, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: joanestelrich@ 123456ub.edu ; Tel.: +34-934-024-559
                Article
                molecules-23-01567
                10.3390/molecules23071567
                6100614
                29958427
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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