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      The Efficacy and Safety of Growth Hormone Therapy in Children with Noonan Syndrome: A Review of the Evidence

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          Abstract

          Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder associated with short stature. We reviewed 15 studies in which growth hormone (GH) therapy was used in children with Noonan syndrome. Data show consistent increases in mean height standard deviation score (SDS), with first-year changes of up to 1.26 SDS. Among studies reporting adult or near-adult height, GH therapy over 5-7 years resulted in adult height SDS from -0.6 to -2.1, with up to 60% of subjects in some studies achieving adult height within 1 SDS of mid-parental height. GH treatment results in an acceleration of bone age, likely reflecting normalization from the retarded bone age common in Noonan syndrome patients at the start of therapy. BMI is not affected by GH treatment, but favorable changes in fat mass and body composition are achievable. Longer-term studies and observational studies suggest a waning of the effect of GH therapy over time, as is seen in other GH-treated conditions, and early initiation of therapy and prepubertal status are important predictors of response. GH treatment does not appear to be associated with adverse cardiac or metabolic effects, and data on malignancy during GH treatment give no cause for concern, although they are limited.

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          Most cited references33

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          The RAS/MAPK syndromes: novel roles of the RAS pathway in human genetic disorders.

          The RAS proteins and their downstream pathways play pivotal roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and cell death, but their physiological roles in human development had remained unknown. Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome, and cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome are autosomal dominant multiple congenital anomaly syndromes characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, musculocutaneous abnormalities, and mental retardation. A variety of mutations in protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11(PTPN11) has been identified in 50% of Noonan patients. Specific mutations in PTPN11 have been identified in LEOPARD (multiple lentigines, electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness) syndrome. In 2005, we discovered Harvey-RAS (HRAS) germline mutations in patients with Costello syndrome. This discovery provided a clue to identification of germline mutations in Kirsten-RAS (KRAS), BRAF and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MAP2K1/MAP2K2) in patients with CFC syndrome. These genes encode molecules in the RAS/RAF/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, leading to a new concept that clinically related disorders, i.e., Noonan, Costello, and CFC syndromes are caused by dysregulation of the RAS/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In the present review, we summarize mutations in HRAS, KRAS, BRAF, MAP2K1/2, and PTPN11, the phenotypes of patients with these mutations, the functional properties of mutants and animal models. Finally we suggest that disorders with mutations of molecules in the RAS/MAPK cascade (Noonan, LEOPARD, Costello, and CFC syndromes and neurofibromatosis type I) may be comprehensively termed "the RAS/MAPK syndromes." Details on mutations will be updated in the RAS/MAPK Syndromes Homepage (www.medgen.med.tohoku.ac.jp/RasMapk syndromes.html).
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            Cancer risk in patients with Noonan syndrome carrying a PTPN11 mutation

            Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. PTPN11 mutations are the most common cause of NS. Patients with NS have a predisposition for leukemia and certain solid tumors. Data on the incidence of malignancies in NS are lacking. Our objective was to estimate the cancer risk and spectrum in patients with NS carrying a PTPN11 mutation. In addition, we have investigated whether specific PTPN11 mutations result in an increased malignancy risk. We have performed a cohort study among 297 Dutch NS patients with a PTPN11 mutation (mean age 18 years). The cancer histories were collected from the referral forms for DNA diagnostics, and by consulting the Dutch national registry of pathology and the Netherlands Cancer Registry. The reported frequencies of cancer among NS patients were compared with the expected frequencies using population-based incidence rates. In total, 12 patients with NS developed a malignancy, providing a cumulative risk for developing cancer of 23% (95% confidence interval (CI), 8–38%) up to age 55 years, which represents a 3.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0–5.9) increased risk compared with that in the general population. Hematological malignancies occurred most frequently. Two malignancies, not previously observed in NS, were found: a malignant mastocytosis and malignant epithelioid angiosarcoma. No correlation was found between specific PTPN11 mutations and cancer occurrence. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence of an increased risk of cancer in patients with NS and a PTPN11 mutation, compared with that in the general population. Our data do not warrant specific cancer surveillance.
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              Noonan syndrome: relationships between genotype, growth, and growth factors.

              Half of the patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) carry mutation of the PTPN11 gene, which plays a role in many hormonal signaling pathways. The mechanism of stunted growth in NS is not clear. The objective of the study was to compare growth and hormonal growth factors before and during recombinant human GH therapy in patients with and without PTPN11 mutations (M+ and M-). This was a prospective multicenter study in 35 NS patients with growth retardation. Auxological data and growth before and during 2 yr of GH therapy are shown. GH, IGF-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and acid-labile subunit (ALS) levels were evaluated before and during therapy. Molecular investigation of the PTPN11 coding sequence revealed 12 different heterozygous missense mutations in 20 of 35 (57%). Birth length was reduced [mean -1.2 sd score (SDS); six m+ and two m- were < -2 SDS] but not birth weight. M+ vs. M- patients were shorter at 6 yr (P = 0.04). In the prepubertal group (n = 25), GH therapy resulted in a catch-up height SDS, which was lower after 2 yr in M+ vs. M- patients (P < 0.03). The mean peak GH level (n = 35) was 15.4 +/- 6.5 ng/ml. Mean blood IGF-I concentration in 19 patients (11 m+, eight m-) was low (especially in M+) for age, sex, and puberty (-1.6 +/- 1.0 SDS) and was normalized after 1 yr of GH therapy (P < 0.001), without difference in M+ vs. M- patients. ALS levels (n = 10) were also very low. By contrast, the mean basal IGFBP-3 value (n = 19) was normal. In NS patients with short stature, some neonates have birth length less than -2 SDS. Growth of M+ is reduced and responds less efficiently to GH than M- patients. The association of low IGF-I and ALS with normal IGFBP-3 levels could explain growth impairment of M+ children and could suggest a GH resistance by a late postreceptor signaling defect.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRP
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2015
                April 2015
                10 December 2014
                : 83
                : 3
                : 157-166
                Affiliations
                aKentucky Children's Heart Center, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., USA; bNovo Nordisk International Operations AG, Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *Anne-Marie Kappelgaard, Novo Nordisk International Operations AG, Thurgauerstrasse 36/38, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland), E-Mail amk@novonordisk.com
                Article
                369012 Horm Res Paediatr 2015;83:157-166
                10.1159/000369012
                25503994
                5e20c8be-6cba-497e-a4f3-e72343d17a2f
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 46, Pages: 10
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