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      Combined Treatment with Low-Dose Pravastatin and Fish Oil in Post-Renal Transplantation Dislipidemia

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          Abstract

          Background: The most common cause of post-transplant dyslipidemia is the use of corticosteroids and cyclosporin-A (CyA). The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have emerged as the agents of first choice in the treatment of post-transplant hyperlipidemia in combination with low fat diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined treatment with low-dose pravastatin and fish oil in post-renal transplantation dislipidemia. Patients and Methods: Twenty-four renal transplant patients, 15 men and 9 women aged from 30 to 60 years with stable renal function were included in this study. All patients were transplanted from living related donors and were given a stable triple immunosuppressive therapy, with methylprednisolone, azathioprine and CyA. All patients were also given a standard diet containing 1 g/kg BW protein, reducing the daily fat to less than 30%, and maintaining at least a 1:1 ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated (or monounsaturated) fats. A dosage of 20 mg pravastatin (pravachol) and 1 g of fish oil (prolipid) were added to the diet after dinner, according to our protocol. Blood samples were taken after each study period for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, Apo A<sub>1</sub>, Apo B, Lp(a), creatinine, CPK and fibrinogen determination. Results: At the end of the therapeutic protocol with pravastatin a significant reduction (p < 0.02) of total and LDL-cholesterol was observed, but no significant change in triglycerides, HDL, Lp(a), Apo A<sub>1</sub>, Apo B and fibrinogen was shown. At the end of the therapeutic protocol with pravastatin and fish oil supplement significant changes were seen in TC (p < 0.02), TG (p < 0.03), LDL-C (p < 0.03), Apo A<sub>1</sub> (p < 0.04) and Apo B (p < 0.05) concentrations. There were no significant changes in HDL-C and Lp(a) concentrations. Renal function and cyclosporine levels were not changed during and after the study. CPK was increased only in one case. Conclusions: It is suggested that if the response to the diet is inadequate, the use of combined treatment with low-dose pravastatin and fish oil is a more effective strategy than the pravastatin treatment alone for changing the lipid profile after renal transplantation.

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          The effect of pravastatin on acute rejection after kidney transplantation--a pilot study.

          Hyperlipidemia is an important complication of kidney transplantation affecting up to 74% of recipients. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are reported to provide safe and effective treatment for this problem. A recent study suggests that pravastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, also decreases the incidence of both clinically severe acute rejection episodes and natural killer cell cytotoxicity after orthotopic heart transplantation. We have performed a prospective randomized pilot study of the effect of pravastatin on these same parameters after cadaveric kidney transplantation. Graft recipients were randomized to receive pravastatin after transplantation or no pravastatin (24 patients in each group) in addition to routine cyclosporine and prednisone immunosuppression. Lipid levels, acute rejection episodes and serial natural killer cell cytotoxicities were followed for 4 months after the transplant. At the end of the study period, pravastatin had successfully controlled mean total cholesterol levels (202.6 +/- 9.3 vs. 236.5 +/- 11.9 mg/dl, P < 0.02), LDL levels (107.9 +/- 6.6 vs.149.6 +/- 10.7 mg/dl, P < 0.002), and triglyceride levels (118.8 +/- 14.2 vs. 157.2 +/- 13.8 mg/dl, P < 0.05). In addition, the pravastatin-treated group experienced a reduction in the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (25% vs. 58%, P = 0.01), the incidence of multiple rejections episodes (P < 0.05), and the use of both pulse methylprednisolone (P = 0.01) and OKT3 (P = 0.02). Mean natural killer cell cytotoxicity was similarly reduced (11.3 +/- 1.6 vs. 20.0 +/- 2.0% lysis of K562 target cells, P < 0.002). These data suggest that pravastatin exerts an additional immunosuppressive effect in kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2001
            2001
            25 July 2001
            : 88
            : 4
            : 329-333
            Affiliations
            First Medical Department, Renal Unit, University Hospital AHEPA, Thessaloniki, Greece
            Article
            46016 Nephron 2001;88:329–333
            10.1159/000046016
            11474227
            © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Tables: 2, References: 21, Pages: 5
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46016
            Categories
            Original Paper

            Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

            Renal transplantation, Dyslipidemia, Pravastatin, Fish oil

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