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      • Article: found

      Fluorophotometric Evaluation of Blood-Retinal Barrier Permeability in Patients with Essential Hypertension


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          Aim: The fluorophotometric evaluation of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) integrity in patients with essential hypertension (EH) without signs of BRB damage. Material and Methods: 55 subjects participated in the study: 36 patients with EH and 19 normotensive healthy volunteers; 22 men and 33 women. The protocol included ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, fluorophotometry, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, serum creatinine concentration, fasting glucose concentration, oral glucose test), urinary cotinine concentration measurement and cotinine-creatinine ratio (CCR) calculation. Results: BRB permeability (P<sub>BRB</sub>) in patients with EH was significantly higher than in the control group (2.24 ± 0.68 vs. 1.64 ± 0.64 nm/s; p = 0.003). In hypertensive patients with CCR >50 ng/mg, the P<sub>BRB</sub> was significantly higher than the P<sub>BRB</sub> in healthy volunteers not exposed to smoke (2.32 vs. 1.68 nm/s; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The P<sub>BRB</sub> in patients with EH is significantly higher than that in the normotensive control group, which shows the damaging effect of EH on the BRB.

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          Most cited references5

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          Urinary cotinine as a tobacco-smoke exposure index: a minireview.

          A minireview is presented concerning the use of cotinine as a tobacco-smoke exposure index. First, general considerations about methods for the determination of urinary cotinine are presented. Besides pure analytical aspects, this minireview considers major problems encountered in the establishment of threshold values that can be used to distinguish not only smokers from nonsmokers but also nonsmokers exposed or not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In addition, the use of urinary cotinine is illustrated in several situations where smoking status assessment is of interest. Such situations include evaluation of the impact of smoking cessation programs, monitoring of pregnancy and of other groups at risk, assessment of occupational exposure to industrial pollutants, validation of phase I clinical trials, and the control of life insurance candidates. The specific problem of ETS exposure assessment is briefly mentioned.
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            1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension

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              Effects of nicotine and cotinine on porcine arterial endothelial cell function.

              BACKGROUND. There has been a significant amount of research on the effects of nicotine on vascular biology; however, little is known about the effects of cotinine, the metabolic product of nicotine. This study used a novel vascular perfusion system to study the effects of nicotine and cotinine on the vascular endothelial cell function.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2004
                28 April 2004
                : 218
                : 3
                : 180-184
                aDepartment of Ophthalmology and bFirst Cardiac Department, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Cracow, Poland
                76842 Ophthalmologica 2004;218:180–184
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 02 July 2003
                : 09 October 2003
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 17, Pages: 5
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Cotinine-creatinine ratio,Essential hypertension,Hypertensive retinopathy,Vascular endothelium,Blood-retinal barrier,Vitreous fluorophotometry,High-performance liquid chromatography,Smoking


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