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      Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine Nanofibers Regulate Endothelial Cell Movement and Angiogenesis: Dependency on Integrin Activation of Ets1

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          Abstract

          Poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofiber-derived materials effectively achieve hemostasis during surgical procedures. Treatment of cutaneous wounds with pGlcNAc in a diabetic mouse animal model causes marked increases in cell proliferation and angiogenesis. We sought to understand the effect of the pGlcNAc fibers on primary endothelial cells (EC) in culture and found that pGlcNAc induces EC motility. Cell motility induced by pGlcNAc fibers is blocked by antibodies directed against αVβ<sub>3</sub> and α<sub>5</sub>β<sub>1</sub> integrins, both known to play important roles in the regulation of EC motility, in vitroand in vivo. pGlcNAc treatment activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and increases Ets1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) expression. pGlcNAc activity is not secondary to its induction of VEGF; inhibition of the VEGF receptor does not inhibit the pGlcNAc-induced expression of Ets1 nor does pGlcNAc cause the activation of VEGF receptor. Both dominant negative and RNA interference inhibition of Ets1 blocks pGlcNAc-induced EC motility. Antibody blockade of integrin results in the inhibition of pGlcNAc-induced Ets1 expression. These findings support the hypothesis that pGlcNAc fibers induce integrin activation which results in the regulation of EC motility and thus in angiogenesis via a pathway dependent on the Ets1 transcription factor and demonstrate that Ets1 is a downstream mediator of integrin activation.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Angiogenesis in wound healing.

          During wound healing, angiogenic capillary sprouts invade the fibrin/fibronectin-rich wound clot and within a few days organize into a microvascular network throughout the granulation tissue. As collagen accumulates in the granulation tissue to produce scar, the density of blood vessels diminishes. A dynamic interaction occurs among endothelial cells, angiogenic cytokines, such as FGF, VEGF, TGF-beta, angiopoietin, and mast cell tryptase, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. Specific endothelial cell ECM receptors are critical for these morphogenetic changes in blood vessels during wound repair. In particular, alpha(v)beta3, the integrin receptor for fibrin and fibronectin, appears to be required for wound angiogenesis: alpha(v)beta3 is expressed on the tips of angiogenic capillary sprouts invading the wound clot, and functional inhibitors of alpha(v)beta3 transiently inhibit granulation tissue formation. Recent investigations have shown that the wound ECM can regulate angiogenesis in part by modulating integrin receptor expression. mRNA levels of alpha(v)beta3 in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells either plated on fibronectin or overlaid by fibrin gel were higher than in cells plated on collagen or overlaid by collagen gel. Wound angiogenesis also appears to be regulated by endothelial cell interaction with the specific three-dimensional ECM environment in the wound space. In an in vitro model of human sprout angiogenesis, three-dimensional fibrin gel, simulating early wound clot, but not collagen gel, simulating late granulation tissue, supported capillary sprout formation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate wound angiogenesis, particularly how ECM modulates ECM receptor and angiogenic factor requirements, may provide new approaches for treating chronic wounds.
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            Role of Akt signaling in vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis.

            Akt is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by a number of growth factors and cytokines in a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-dependent manner. Although antiapoptotic activity of Akt is well known, it also regulates other aspects of cellular functions, including migration, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis. In this review, Akt signaling in endothelial cells and its critical roles in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis will be discussed.
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              Topical vascular endothelial growth factor accelerates diabetic wound healing through increased angiogenesis and by mobilizing and recruiting bone marrow-derived cells.

              Diminished production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased angiogenesis are thought to contribute to impaired tissue repair in diabetic patients. We examined whether recombinant human VEGF(165) protein would reverse the impaired wound healing phenotype in genetically diabetic mice. Paired full-thickness skin wounds on the dorsum of db/db mice received 20 microg of VEGF every other day for five doses to one wound and vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) to the other. We demonstrate significantly accelerated repair in VEGF-treated wounds with an average time to resurfacing of 12 days versus 25 days in untreated mice. VEGF-treated wounds were characterized by an early leaky, malformed vasculature followed by abundant granulation tissue deposition. The VEGF-treated wounds demonstrated increased epithelialization, increased matrix deposition, and enhanced cellular proliferation, as assessed by uptake of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Analysis of gene expression by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrates a significant up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor-B and fibroblast growth factor-2 in VEGF-treated wounds, which corresponds with the increased granulation tissue in these wounds. These experiments also demonstrated an increase in the rate of repair of the contralateral phosphate-buffered saline-treated wound when compared to wounds in diabetic mice never exposed to VEGF (18 days versus 25 days), suggesting that topical VEGF had a systemic effect. We observed increased numbers of circulating VEGFR2(+)/CD11b(-) cells in the VEGF-treated mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, which likely represent an endothelial precursor population. In diabetic mice with bone marrow replaced by that of tie2/lacZ mice we demonstrate that the local recruitment of bone marrow-derived endothelial lineage lacZ+ cells was augmented by topical VEGF. We conclude that topical VEGF is able to improve wound healing by locally up-regulating growth factors important for tissue repair and by systemically mobilizing bone marrow-derived cells, including a population that contributes to blood vessel formation, and recruiting these cells to the local wound environment where they are able to accelerate repair. Thus, VEGF therapy may be useful in the treatment of diabetic complications characterized by impaired neovascularization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                April 2008
                19 December 2007
                : 45
                : 3
                : 222-232
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, and bHollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C., and cMarine Polymer Technologies, Inc., Danvers, Mass., USA
                Article
                112544 PMC2769246 J Vasc Res 2008;45:222–232
                10.1159/000112544
                PMC2769246
                18097146
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 49, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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