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Data report: revised composite depth scales for Sites U1336, U1337, and U1338: Expedition 320/321

, , , , Expedition 320/321 Scientists

Proceedings of the IODP

Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

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      Abstract

      The eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) is one of the most dynamic regions of the open ocean. To fully appreciate the history of this area in the time domain, correlative and complete sedimentary records are required from multiple drill sites. One essential step for each site is the construction of an accurate composite depth scale, whereby selected intervals of successive cores from proximal holes are spliced together to render a full stratigraphic section. Here, we generate revised composite depth scales for Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1336, U1337, and U1338, recovered during IODP Expeditions 320 and 321. Composite sections were generated using physical properties data overlain on high-resolution scanned images of adjacent core sections from all holes cored at a site. Coring disturbance, particularly deeper in the holes, prevented composite construction to total depth at each site. At Site U1336, utilizing two holes, the composite record reaches almost 135 m core composite depth below seafloor (CCSF). At Site U1337, with four holes, a depth of close to 450 m CCSF was reached with only three gaps. Using the three holes of Site U1338, a composite section of almost 400 m CCSF was developed with only two breaks. Composite depth records are crucial for working on these sites because sediment composition varies considerably over short (<30 cm) depth intervals. The composite gamma ray attenuation density records will be particularly important to a range of studies in the region because they can be coupled to those collected at earlier drill sites in the EEP.

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      Most cited references 10

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      Primary production in the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

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        Evolution of the eastern tropical Pacific through Plio-Pleistocene glaciation.

        A tropical Pacific climate state resembling that of a permanent El Niño is hypothesized to have ended as a result of a reorganization of the ocean heat budget approximately 3 million years ago, a time when large ice sheets appeared in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. We report a high-resolution alkenone reconstruction of conditions in the heart of the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) cold tongue that reflects the combined influences of changes in the equatorial thermocline, the properties of the thermocline's source waters, atmospheric greenhouse gas content, and orbital variations on sea surface temperature (SST) and biological productivity over the past 5 million years. Our data indicate that the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation approximately 3 million years ago did not interrupt an almost monotonic cooling of the EEP during the Plio-Pleistocene. SST and productivity in the eastern tropical Pacific varied in phase with global ice volume changes at a dominant 41,000-year (obliquity) frequency throughout this time. Changes in the Southern Hemisphere most likely modulated most of the changes observed.
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          Greatly expanded tropical warm pool and weakened Hadley circulation in the early Pliocene.

          The Pliocene warm interval has been difficult to explain. We reconstructed the latitudinal distribution of sea surface temperature around 4 million years ago, during the early Pliocene. Our reconstruction shows that the meridional temperature gradient between the equator and subtropics was greatly reduced, implying a vast poleward expansion of the ocean tropical warm pool. Corroborating evidence indicates that the Pacific temperature contrast between the equator and 32 degrees N has evolved from approximately 2 degrees C 4 million years ago to approximately 8 degrees C today. The meridional warm pool expansion evidently had enormous impacts on the Pliocene climate, including a slowdown of the atmospheric Hadley circulation and El Niño-like conditions in the equatorial region. Ultimately, sustaining a climate state with weak tropical sea surface temperature gradients may require additional mechanisms of ocean heat uptake (such as enhanced ocean vertical mixing).
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.2204/iodp.proc.320321.2010
            Proceedings of the IODP
            Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
            1930-1014
            19 February 2013
            10.2204/iodp.proc.320321.209.2013

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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