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      Phylogenetic study of the genera of Trichopterygini from Austral South American (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): a new classification Translated title: Estudio filogenético de los géneros de Trichopterygini de Sudamérica Austral (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): una nueva clasificación

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Phylogenetic study of the genera of South American Austral Trichopterygini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Larentiinae): a new classification. In this work, we evaluate the taxonomy of the Trichopterygini in Chile based on a phylogenetic analysis of the morphological attributes. In our analysis, we used Tatosoma and Sauris as outgroups. Two approaches were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships: 1) parsimony criterion, and 2) Bayesian inference. Parsimony analysis was conducted in PAUP software, and Bayesian analysis with Markov chain Monte Carlo using the BayesPhylogenies software. Our results based on the phylogenetic hypothesis suggest a new taxonomic order for Trichopterygini of the Andean Region of Southern South America. The valid genera are: Arrayanaria Parra, Butleriana Parra, Danielaparra Kemal & Kocak, Fueguina Parra, Hoplosauris Butler, Lagynopteryx Berg, Llampidken Parra & Santos-Salas, Pachrophylla Blanchard, Parapachrophylla Parra, Rindgenaria Parra, Tomopteryx Philippi, Triptila Warren, Triptiloides Parra & Santos-Salas, Warrenaria Parra. The main changes with respect to the previous taxonomic order are: 1) the genus Lagynopteryx Berg is subordinated under the Trichopterygini; 2) Toxopaltes Warren is a junior synonym of Lagynopteryx; 3) Hoplosauris moesta is transferred to the genus Llampidken; 4) Llampidken valdiviana is a junior synonym of L. moesta; 5) Oparabia arenosa is newly combined with the genus Arrayanaria; 6) Danielaparra viridis is a junior synonym of D. fragmentata; 7) Lobophora imbricaria is newly combined with the genus Danielaparra; 8) Triptiloides fasciata is a junior synonym of T. randallae; and 9) Parapachrophylla michelleae Parra n. sp. is described. Andean Region species are more closely related to the genus Tatosoma from New Zealand, the synapomorphies that demonstrate this are: swollen metaepimeron and hypertrophy of the second abdominal segment. A checklist of the genera and species of the tribe in the region, and the figures of adults and genitalia of some species are included.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMEN En este trabajo se evalúa la taxonomía de los Trichopterygini de Chile a partir de un análisis filogenético de los atributos morfológicos. En nuestro análisis, hemos utilizado Tatosoma y Sauris como grupos externos. Se utilizaron dos enfoques para evaluar las relaciones filogenéticas: 1) criterio de parsimonia, y 2) inferencia bayesiana. El análisis de parsimonia se realizó a través del programa PAUP y el análisis bayesiano con cadenas de Markov y Monte Carlo a través del programa BayesPhylogenies. Nuestros resultados basados en la hipótesis filogenética sugieren un nuevo orden taxonómico para Trichopterygini de la Región Andina del Sur de Sudamérica. Los géneros válidos son: Arrayanaria Parra, Butleriana Parra, Danielaparra Kemal & Kocak, Fueguina Parra, Hoplosauris Butler, Lagynopteryx Berg, Llampidken Parra & Santos-Salas, Pachrophylla Blanchard, Parapachrophylla Parra, Rindgenaria Parra & Santos-Salas, Tomopteryx Philippi, Triptila Warren y Warrenaria Parra. Los principales cambios con respecto al orden taxonómico anterior son: 1) el género Lagynopteryx Berg se incorpora a Trichopterygini; 2) Toxopaltes Warren es el sinónimo junior de Lagynopteryx; 3) Hoplosauris moesta se incorpora al género Llampidken; 4) Llampidken valdiviana es el sinónimo junior de L. Moesta; 5) Oparabia arenosa es incorporada al género Arrayanaria; 6) Danielaparra viridis es el sinónimo junior de D. fragmentata; 7) Lobophora imbricaria es incorporada al género Danielaparra; Triptiloides fasciata es el sinónimo junior de T. randallae; y 9) Parapachrophylla michelleae Parra n. sp. es descrita. Las especies de la Región Andina están más cerca del Tatosoma de Nueva Zelanda, las sinapomorfias que demuestran esto son: el metaepimeron hinchado y la hipertrofia del segundo segmento abdominal. Se incluye un catálogo de los géneros y especies de la tribu en la región, y fotografías de adultos y armaduras genitales de algunas especies.

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          Most cited references 42

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          A phylogenetic mixture model for detecting pattern-heterogeneity in gene sequence or character-state data.

          We describe a general likelihood-based 'mixture model' for inferring phylogenetic trees from gene-sequence or other character-state data. The model accommodates cases in which different sites in the alignment evolve in qualitatively distinct ways, but does not require prior knowledge of these patterns or partitioning of the data. We call this qualitative variability in the pattern of evolution across sites "pattern-heterogeneity" to distinguish it from both a homogenous process of evolution and from one characterized principally by differences in rates of evolution. We present studies to show that the model correctly retrieves the signals of pattern-heterogeneity from simulated gene-sequence data, and we apply the method to protein-coding genes and to a ribosomal 12S data set. The mixture model outperforms conventional partitioning in both these data sets. We implement the mixture model such that it can simultaneously detect rate- and pattern-heterogeneity. The model simplifies to a homogeneous model or a rate-variability model as special cases, and therefore always performs at least as well as these two approaches, and often considerably improves upon them. We make the model available within a Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo framework for phylogenetic inference, as an easy-to-use computer program.
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            Empirical and hierarchical Bayesian estimation of ancestral states.

            Several methods have been proposed to infer the states at the ancestral nodes on a phylogeny. These methods assume a specific tree and set of branch lengths when estimating the ancestral character state. Inferences of the ancestral states, then, are conditioned on the tree and branch lengths being true. We develop a hierarchical Bayes method for inferring the ancestral states on a tree. The method integrates over uncertainty in the tree, branch lengths, and substitution model parameters by using Markov chain Monte Carlo. We compare the hierarchical Bayes inferences of ancestral states with inferences of ancestral states made under the assumption that a specific tree is correct. We find that the methods are correlated, but that accommodating uncertainty in parameters of the phylogenetic model can make inferences of ancestral states even more uncertain than they would be in an empirical Bayes analysis.
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              Comprehensive Molecular Sampling Yields a Robust Phylogeny for Geometrid Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

              Background The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers), with approximately 23 000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gayana
                Gayana (Concepción)
                Gayana (Concepc.)
                Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción (Concepción, , Chile )
                0717-652X
                0717-6538
                December 2017
                : 81
                : 2
                : 64-99
                Affiliations
                Concepción Bío-Bío orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas orgdiv2Departamento de Zoología Chile luparra@ 123456udec.cl
                Arica Tarapacá orgnameUniversidad de Tarapacá orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas orgdiv2Departamento de Recursos Ambientales Chile havargas@ 123456uta.cl
                Article
                S0717-65382017000200064

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 58, Pages: 36
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