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      Tissue Engineered Scaffolds in Regenerative Medicine

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          Stem cells are self-renewing cells that can be differentiated into other cell types. Conventional in vitro models for studying stem cells differentiation are usually preformed in two-dimensional (2D) cultures. The design of three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models which ideally are supposed to mimic the in vivo stem cells microenvironment is potentially useful for inducing stem cell derived tissue formation. Biodegradable scaffolds play an important role in creating a 3D environment to induce tissue formation. The application of scaffolding materials together with stem cell technologies are believed to hold enormous potential for tissue regeneration. In this review, we provide an overview of application of tissue engineered scaffolds and stem cells for the development of stem cell-based engineered tissue replacements. In particular, we focus on bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) due to their extensive clinical applications.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Mechanical properties and cell cultural response of polycaprolactone scaffolds designed and fabricated via fused deposition modeling.

          A number of different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications. The imperfection of the current techniques has encouraged the use of a rapid prototyping technology known as fused deposition modeling (FDM). Our results show that FDM allows the design and fabrication of highly reproducible bioresorbable 3D scaffolds with a fully interconnected pore network. The mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility of polycaprolactone scaffolds with a porosity of 61 +/- 1% and two matrix architectures were studied. The honeycomb-like pores had a size falling within the range of 360 x 430 x 620 microm. The scaffolds with a 0/60/120 degrees lay-down pattern had a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in air of 41.9 +/- 3.5 and 3.1 +/- 0.1 MPa, respectively, and a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in simulated physiological conditions (a saline solution at 37 degrees C) of 29.4 +/- 4.0 and 2.3 +/- 0.2 MPa, respectively. In comparison, the scaffolds with a 0/72/144/36/108 degrees lay-down pattern had a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in air of 20.2 +/- 1.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 MPa, respectively, and a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in simulated physiological conditions (a saline solution at 37 degrees C) of 21.5 +/- 2.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the five-angle scaffolds had significantly lower stiffness and 1% offset yield strengths under compression loading than those with a three-angle pattern under both testing conditions (p < or = 0.05). The obtained stress-strain curves for both scaffold architectures demonstrate the typical behavior of a honeycomb structure undergoing deformation. In vitro studies were conducted with primary human fibroblasts and periosteal cells. Light, environmental scanning electron, and confocal laser microscopy as well as immunohistochemistry showed cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production on the polycaprolactone surface in the 1st culturing week. Over a period of 3-4 weeks in a culture, the fully interconnected scaffold architecture was completely 3D-filled by cellular tissue. Our cell culture study shows that fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells can proliferate, differentiate, and produce a cellular tissue in an entirely interconnected 3D polycaprolactone matrix. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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            Potential of nanofiber matrix as tissue-engineering scaffolds.

            Tissue-engineering scaffolds should be analogous to native extracellular matrix (ECM) in terms of both chemical composition and physical structure. Polymeric nanofiber matrix is similar, with its nanoscaled nonwoven fibrous ECM proteins, and thus is a candidate ECM-mimetic material. Techniques such as electrospinning to produce polymeric nanofibers have stimulated researchers to explore the application of nanofiber matrix as a tissue-engineering scaffold. This review covers the preparation and modification of polymeric nanofiber matrix in the development of future tissue-engineering scaffolds. Major emphasis is also given to the development and applications of aligned, core shell-structured, or surface-functionalized polymer nanofibers. The potential application of polymer nanofibers extends far beyond tissue engineering. Owing to their high surface area, functionalized polymer nanofibers will find broad applications as drug delivery carriers, biosensors, and molecular filtration membranes in future.
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              Biodegradable synthetic polymers for tissue engineering.

              This paper reviews biodegradable synthetic polymers focusing on their potential in tissue engineering applications. The major classes of polymers are briefly discussed with regard to synthesis, properties and biodegradability, and known degradation modes and products are indicated based on studies reported in the literature. A vast majority of biodegradable polymers studied belongs to the polyester family, which includes polyglycolides and polylactides. Some disadvantages of these polymers in tissue engineering applications are their poor biocompatibility, release of acidic degradation products, poor processability and loss of mechanical properties very early during degradation. Other degradable polymers such as polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides, polyphosphazenes, and polyurethanes are also discussed and their advantages and disadvantages summarised. With advancements in tissue engineering it has become necessary to develop polymers that meet more demanding requirements. Recent work has focused on developing injectable polymer compositions based on poly (propylene fumarate) and poly (anhydrides) to meet these requirements in orthopaedic tissue engineering. Polyurethanes have received recent attention for development of degradable polymers because of their great potential in tailoring polymer structure to achieve mechanical properties and biodegradability to suit a variety of applications.

                Author and article information

                World J Plast Surg
                World J Plast Surg
                World Journal of Plastic Surgery
                Iranian Society for Plastic Surgeons (Tehran, Iran )
                January 2014
                : 3
                : 1
                : 3-7
                [1 ]Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran;
                [2 ]Stem Cell and Transgenic Technology Research Center, Department of Pathology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;
                [3 ]Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical sciences, Zahedan, Iran;
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran;
                [5 ]Student Research Committee, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran;
                [6 ]Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence Author: Reza Shirazi, PhD, Assistant Professor of Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, 34199-15315, Iran Tel/Fax: +98-281-3336001-5 (Ext. 438), E-mail: r_shirazi@ 123456razi.tums.ac.ir

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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