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      Tolvaptan versus fluid restriction in acutely hospitalised patients with moderate-profound hyponatraemia (TVFR-HypoNa): design and implementation of an open-label randomised trial


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          Current hyponatraemia guidelines are divided on the use of tolvaptan in hospitalised patients with moderate to severe hyponatraemia, due to an uncertain risk-benefit ratio. We will conduct a randomised trial to test the hypothesis that early use of tolvaptan improves the rate of serum sodium correction and clinical outcomes compared with current standard first-line therapy, restriction of fluid intake, without increasing the risk of serum sodium overcorrection.


          We will enrol hospitalised patients with euvolaemic or hypervolaemic hyponatraemia and serum sodium of 115–130 mmol/L at Austin Health, a tertiary care centre in Melbourne, Australia. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive either tolvaptan (initial dose 7.5 mg) or fluid restriction (initial limit 1000 ml per 24 h), with titration of therapy based on serum sodium response according to a pre-determined protocol over a 72-h intervention period.

          The primary endpoint will be the between-group change in serum sodium over time, from study day 1 to day 4. Secondary endpoints include serum sodium increment in the first 24 and 48 h, proportion of participants with normalised serum sodium, length of hospital stay, requirement for serum sodium re-lowering with intravenous dextrose or desmopressin, cognitive and functional measures (Confusion Assessment Method Short form, Timed Up and Go test, hyponatraemia symptom questionnaire), 30-day readmission rate, treatment satisfaction score and serum sodium 30 days after discharge. The trial will be overseen by an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. Serum sodium will be monitored every 6–12 h throughout the study period, with pre-specified thresholds for commencing intravenous 5% dextrose if serum sodium rise targets are exceeded.


          We seek to inform future international guidelines with high-quality data regarding the utility and safety of tolvaptan compared to standard therapy fluid restriction in patients with moderate-severe hyponatraemia in hospital. If tolvaptan use in this patient group is endorsed by our findings, we will have established an evidence-based framework for tolvaptan initiation and monitoring to guide its use.

          Trial registration

          Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001683123. Registered on December 2 2019

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13063-022-06237-5.

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          Most cited references35

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          Research electronic data capture (REDCap) is a novel workflow methodology and software solution designed for rapid development and deployment of electronic data capture tools to support clinical and translational research. We present: (1) a brief description of the REDCap metadata-driven software toolset; (2) detail concerning the capture and use of study-related metadata from scientific research teams; (3) measures of impact for REDCap; (4) details concerning a consortium network of domestic and international institutions collaborating on the project; and (5) strengths and limitations of the REDCap system. REDCap is currently supporting 286 translational research projects in a growing collaborative network including 27 active partner institutions.
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            A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation

            The objective of this study was to develop a prospectively applicable method for classifying comorbid conditions which might alter the risk of mortality for use in longitudinal studies. A weighted index that takes into account the number and the seriousness of comorbid disease was developed in a cohort of 559 medical patients. The 1-yr mortality rates for the different scores were: "0", 12% (181); "1-2", 26% (225); "3-4", 52% (71); and "greater than or equal to 5", 85% (82). The index was tested for its ability to predict risk of death from comorbid disease in the second cohort of 685 patients during a 10-yr follow-up. The percent of patients who died of comorbid disease for the different scores were: "0", 8% (588); "1", 25% (54); "2", 48% (25); "greater than or equal to 3", 59% (18). With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to comorbid disease (log rank chi 2 = 165; p less than 0.0001). In this longer follow-up, age was also a predictor of mortality (p less than 0.001). The new index performed similarly to a previous system devised by Kaplan and Feinstein. The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from comorbid disease for use in longitudinal studies. Further work in larger populations is still required to refine the approach because the number of patients with any given condition in this study was relatively small.
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              The REDCap consortium: Building an international community of software platform partners

              The Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) data management platform was developed in 2004 to address an institutional need at Vanderbilt University, then shared with a limited number of adopting sites beginning in 2006. Given bi-directional benefit in early sharing experiments, we created a broader consortium sharing and support model for any academic, non-profit, or government partner wishing to adopt the software. Our sharing framework and consortium-based support model have evolved over time along with the size of the consortium (currently more than 3200 REDCap partners across 128 countries). While the "REDCap Consortium" model represents only one example of how to build and disseminate a software platform, lessons learned from our approach may assist other research institutions seeking to build and disseminate innovative technologies.

                Author and article information

                BioMed Central (London )
                21 April 2022
                21 April 2022
                : 23
                : 335
                [1 ]GRID grid.1008.9, ISNI 0000 0001 2179 088X, Department of Medicine, , University of Melbourne, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                [2 ]GRID grid.414094.c, ISNI 0000 0001 0162 7225, Department of Endocrinology, , The Austin Hospital, ; Melbourne, Victoria Australia
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 10 June 2021
                : 27 March 2022
                Funded by: otsuka australia pharmaceutical
                Award ID: IIT 156-419-00250
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000925, national health and medical research council;
                Award ID: APP2005300
                Award Recipient :
                Study Protocol
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                © The Author(s) 2022

                hyponatraemia,tolvaptan,fluid restriction,syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (siad)


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