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      Petrocosmea nanchuanensis (Gesneriaceae), a new species from Chongqing, China

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          A new species, Petrocosmea nanchuanensis Z.Y. Liu, Z.Y. Li & Z.J. Qiu from Mt. Jinfo at Banhe valley of Nanchuan District in Chongqing Municipality (China) is described and illustrated for the first time. Even though this new species is similar to Petrocosmea barbata , it has several significant morphological differences, which includes smaller leaves, repand leaf margin, densely appressed longer pubescences on both surfaces of leaves, larger flower with length of its lower lips about three times longer than that of the upper lips, oblong lower lip lobes, shorter pistil, ovate anthers and styles that are shortly pubescent or approximately glabrous above the middle. The distinct features of P. nanchuanensis and four relative species namely, P. barbata , P. longipedicellata , P. cavaleriei and P. xanthomaculata were also represented in depth. However, P. nanchuanensis is most closely related to P. barbata , based on molecular studies.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Flora of Thailand: Annotated Checklist of Gesneriaceae.

           BL Burtt (2001)
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            Confirmation of a natural hybrid species in Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) based on molecular and morphological evidence.

             ZJ Qiu,  ZL Yuan,  ZY LI (2011)
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              Origin and evolution of Petrocosmea (Gesneriaceae) inferred from both DNA sequence and novel findings in morphology with a test of morphology-based hypotheses

              Background Petrocosmea Oliver (Gesneriaceae) currently comprises 38 species with four non-nominate varieties, nearly all of which have been described solely from herbarium specimens. However, the dried specimens have obscured the full range of extremely diverse morphological variation that exists in the genus and has resulted in a poor subgeneric classification system that does not reflect the evolutionary history of this group. It is important to develop innovative methods to find new morphological traits and reexamine and reevaluate the traditionally used morphological data based on new hypothesis. In addition, Petrocosmea is a mid-sized genus but exhibits extreme diverse floral variants. This makes the genus of particular interest in addressing the question whether there are any key factors that is specifically associated with their evolution and diversification. Results Here we present the first phylogenetic analyses of the genus based on dense taxonomic sampling and multiple genes combined with a comprehensive morphological investigation. Maximum-parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of molecular data from two nuclear DNA and six cpDNA regions support the monophyly of Petrocosmea and recover five major clades within the genus, which is strongly corroborated by the reconstruction of ancestral states for twelve new morphological characters directly observed from living material. Ancestral area reconstruction shows that its most common ancestor was likely located east and southeast of the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau. The origin of Petrocosmea from a potentially Raphiocarpus-like ancestor might have involved a series of morphological modifications from caulescent to acaulescent habit as well as from a tetrandrous flower with a long corolla-tube to a diandrous flower with a short corolla-tube, also evident in the vestigial caulescent habit and transitional floral form in clade A that is sister to the remainder of the genus. Among the five clades in Petrocosmea, the patterns of floral morphological differentiation are consistent with discontinuous lineage-associated morphotypes as a repeated adaptive response to alternative environments. Conclusion Our results suggest that the lineage-specific morphological differentiations reflected in the upper lip, a functional organ for insect pollination, are likely adaptive responses to pollinator shifts. We further recognize that the floral morphological diversification in Petrocosmea involves several evolutionary phenomena, i.e. evolutionary successive specialization, reversals, parallel evolution, and convergent evolution, which are probably associated with adaptation to pollination against the background of heterogeneous abiotic and biotic environments in the eastern wing regions of Himalaya-Tibetan plateau. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0540-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                26 August 2020
                : 157
                : 137-144
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518004, China Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen China
                [2 ] Chongqing Institute of Medical Plant Cultivation, Nanchuan, Chongqing, 408435, China Chongqing Institute of Medical Plant Cultivation Chongqing China
                [3 ] Guangdong Eco-Engineering polytechnic, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510520, China Chongqing Jinfo Mountain Forest Ecosystem Field Scientific Observation and Research Station Chongqing China
                [4 ] State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China Sun Yat-sen University Guangzhou China
                [5 ] Resource Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100000, China Guangdong Eco-Engineering polytechnic Guangdong China
                [6 ] School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                [7 ] Chongqing Jinfo Mountain Forest Ecosystem Field Scientific Observation and Research Station, Nanchuan, Chongqing, 408435, China China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Zheng-Yu Liu ( Liutzy@ 123456163.com )

                Academic editor: Fang Wen

                Zhi-Jing Qiu, Jun Zhang, Xavier-Ravi Baskaran, Jin Hu, Zhen-Yu Li, Zheng-Yu Liu

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                Biodiversity & Conservation


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