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      New records of anisakid nematodes from marine fishes off New Caledonia, with descriptions of five new species of Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) (Nematoda, Anisakidae) Translated title: Nouvelles mentions de nématodes anisakidés de poissons marins de Nouvelle-Calédonie, avec description de cinq nouvelles espèces de Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) (Nematoda, Anisakidae)

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Nematode parasite, Ascaridoidea, Aulopiformes, Elopiformes, Perciformes, South Pacific

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          Abstract

          Recent examinations of anisakid nematodes (Anisakidae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, collected in the years 2003–2008, revealed the presence of the following five new species of Raphidascaris Railliet et Henry, 1915, all belonging to the subgenus Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949: Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) spinicauda n. sp. from the redbelly yellowtail fusilier Caesio cuning (Caesionidae, Perciformes); Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) fasciati n. sp. from the blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae, Perciformes); Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) nudicauda n. sp. from the brushtooth lizardfish Saurida undosquamis (Synodontidae, Aulopiformes); Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) euani n. sp. from the Japanese large-eye bream Gymnocranius euanus (Lethrinidae, Perciformes); and Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) elopsis n. sp. from the Hawaiian ladyfish Elops hawaiensis (Elopidae, Elopiformes). An additional two congeneric species, R. ( I.) etelidis Moravec et Justine, 2012 and R. ( I.) sillagoides (Bruce, 1990) were found in the deep-water red snapper Etelis carbunculus (new host record) and the deepwater longtail red snapper Etelis coruscans (both Lutjanidae, Perciformes), and the silver sillago Sillago sihama (Sillaginidae, Perciformes) (new host and geographical records), respectively. Two unidentified congeneric species, Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) sp. 1 from the trumpet emperor Lethrinus miniatus (Lethrinidae, Perciformes) and Raphidascaris ( Ichthyascaris) sp. 2 from the white-spotted puffer Arothron hispidus (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes) were recorded. Moreover, two species of Hysterothylacium Ward et Magath, 1917, H. alatum Moravec et Justine, 2015 and H. epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1941), were found in the leopard coralgrouper Plectropomus leopardus (type host) and the highfin grouper Epinephelus maculatus (new host) (both Serranidae, Perciformes), respectively. This is the second finding of H. epinepheli since its original description in Japan 79 years ago. Most species are described based on light and electron microscopical studies.

          Translated abstract

          L’examen récent de nématodes Anisakidae de poissons marins de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, collectés dans les années 2003–2008, a révélé la présence des cinq nouvelles espèces de Raphidascaris Railliet et Henry, 1915, toutes appartenant au sous-genre Ichthyascaris Wu, 1949 : Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) spinicauda n. sp. chez le fusilier Caesio cuning (Caesionidae, Perciformes) ; Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) fasciati n. sp. chez la loche Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae, Perciformes) ; Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) nudicauda n. sp. chez le poisson-lézard Saurida undosquamis (Synodontidae, Aulopiformes) ; Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) euani n. sp. chez le bossu Gymnocranius euanus (Lethrinidae, Perciformes) ; et Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) elopsis n. sp. chez Elops hawaiensis (Elopidae, Elopiformes). Deux autres espèces congénériques, R. (I.) etelidis Moravec et Justine, 2012 et R. (I.) sillagoides (Bruce, 1990) ont été trouvées respectivement chez les vivaneaux de profondeur Etelis carbunculus (nouvel hôte) et Etelis coruscans (Lutjanidae, Perciformes) et chez Sillago sihama (Sillaginidae, Perciformes) (nouvel hôte et nouvelle mention géographique). Deux espèces congénériques non identifiées, Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. 1 chez le bossu Lethrinus miniatus (Lethrinidae, Perciformes) et Raphidascaris (Ichthyascaris) sp. 2 chez Arothron hispidus (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes) sont signalées. De plus, deux espèces d’ Hysterothylacium Ward et Magath, 1917, H. alatum Moravec et Justine, 2015 et H. epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1941), ont été trouvées chez la saumonée Plectropomus leopardus (hôte-type) et chez la loche uitoé Epinephelus maculatus (nouvel hôte) (Serranidae, Perciformes), respectivement. Il s’agit de la deuxième mention d’ H. epinepheli depuis sa description originale au Japon il y a 79 ans. La plupart des espèces ont été décrites sur la base d’études au microscope optique et électronique.

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          A quick and simple method, usable in the field, for collecting parasites in suitable condition for both morphological and molecular studies.

          Many methods have been proposed for collecting and fixing parasites, but most were written before the molecular age, and were intended to be practised by experienced parasitologists in well-equipped laboratories. We describe here a very simple method, illustrated by photographs, for collecting helminths from the digestive tract of vertebrates. It only requires a few plastic vials, some ethanol and a means to heat water. Basically, the method consists of: (a) the extraction of all organs from the abdominal cavity; (b) opening the digestive system longitudinally; (c) agitate gut and contents in a saline solution (i.e. ca. 9% NaCl or 1/4 sea water in tap water); (d) decant in saline as many times as needed to clean contents; (e) immediately fix parasites in near-boiling saline; (f) discard saline and keep specimens in 95% ethanol. Additional information is given for collecting parasites from fish gills with a similar process. The method will collect most helminths (digeneans, larval cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans) from the digestive tract, and monogeneans and isopod and copepod crustaceans from fish gills. The specimens will be suitable for both morphological study and DNA sequencing. The method is simple, fast, inexpensive and can be used by untrained personnel, even in the field without electricity and without a binocular microscope. It can also be used by trained parasitologists who need to expedite treatment of abundant samples.
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            An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

            Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.
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              An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

              Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                30 March 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences Branišovská 31 370 05 České Budějovice Czech Republic
                [2 ] Institut Systématique, Évolution, Biodiversité (ISYEB), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, EPHE, Université des Antilles Rue Cuvier, CP 51 75005 Paris France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: moravec@ 123456paru.cas.cz
                Article
                parasite200028 10.1051/parasite/2020016
                10.1051/parasite/2020016
                7104620
                © F. Moravec & J.-L. Justine, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 17, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 25
                Categories
                Research Article

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