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      Central Venous Oxygen Saturation: A Potential New Marker for Circulatory Stress in Haemodialysis Patients?

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Haemodialysis causes recurrent haemodynamic stress with subsequent ischaemic end-organ dysfunction. As dialysis prescriptions/schedules can be modified to lessen this circulatory stress, an easily applicable test to allow targeted interventions in vulnerable patients is urgently required. Methods: Intra-dialytic central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO<sub>2</sub>) and clinical markers (including ultrafiltration, blood pressure) were measured in 18 prevalent haemodialysis patients. Results: Pre-dialysis ScvO<sub>2</sub> was 63.5 ± 13% and fell significantly to 56.4 ± 8% at end dialysis (p = 0.046). Ultrafiltration volume, a key driver of dialysis-induced myocardial ischaemia, inversely correlated to ScvO<sub>2</sub> (r = -0.680, p = 0.015). Conclusions: This initial study demonstrates ScvO<sub>2</sub> sampling is practical, with a potential clinical utility as an indicator of circulatory stress during dialysis.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Hemodialysis-induced cardiac injury: determinants and associated outcomes.

          Hemodialysis (HD)-induced myocardial stunning driven by ischemia is a recognized complication of HD, which can be ameliorated by HD techniques that improve hemodynamics. In nondialysis patients, repeated ischemia leads to chronic reduction in left ventricular (LV) function. HD may initiate and drive the same process. In this study, we examined the prevalence and associations of HD-induced repetitive myocardial injury and long-term effects on LV function and patient outcomes. Seventy prevalent HD patients were assessed for evidence of subclinical myocardial injury at baseline using serial echocardiography and followed up after 12 mo. Intradialytic blood pressure, hematologic and biochemical samples, and patient demographics were also collected at both time points. Sixty-four percent of patients had significant myocardial stunning during HD. Age, ultrafiltration volumes, intradialytic hypotension, and cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) levels were independent determinants associated with its presence. Myocardial stunning was associated with increased relative mortality at 12 mo (P = 0.019). Cox regression analysis showed increased hazard of death in patients with myocardial stunning and elevated cTnT than in patients with elevated cTnT alone (P < 0.02). Patients with myocardial stunning who survived 12 mo had significantly lower LV ejection fractions at rest and on HD (P < 0.001). HD-induced myocardial stunning is common, and may contribute to the development of heart failure and increased mortality in HD patients. Enhanced understanding of dialysis-induced cardiac injury may provide novel therapeutic targets to reduce currently excessive rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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            Congestive heart failure in dialysis patients: prevalence, incidence, prognosis and risk factors.

             R Foley,  P Parfrey,  P Barre (1995)
            Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in dialysis subjects. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a common presenting symptom of cardiovascular disease in the dialysis population. Information regarding prevalence, incidence, risk factors and prognosis is crucial for planning rational interventional studies. A prospective multicenter cohort study of 432 dialysis patients followed for a mean of 41 months was carried out. Prospective information on a variety of risk factors was collected. Annual echocardiography and clinical assessment was performed. Major endpoints included death and the development of morbid cardiovascular events. One hundred and thirty-three (31%) subjects had CHF at the time of initiation of dialysis therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that the following risk factors were significantly and independently associated with CHF at baseline: systolic dysfunction, older age, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. Seventy-six of 299 subjects (25%) who did not have baseline CHF subsequently developed CHF during their course on dialysis. Compared to those subjects who never developed CHF (N = 218) multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors for the development of CHF: older age, anemia during dialysis therapy, hypoalbuminemia, hypertension during dialysis therapy, and systolic dysfunction. Seventy-five of the 133 (56%) subjects with CHF at baseline had recurrent CHF during follow-up. Independent and significant risk factors for CHF recurrence were ischemic heart disease and systolic dysfunction, anemia during dialysis therapy and hypoalbuminemia. The median survival of subjects with CHF at baseline was 36 months compared to 62 months in subjects without CHF. In this study the prevalence of CHF on starting ESRD therapy and the subsequent annual incidence was high.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              The influence of early hemodynamic optimization on biomarker patterns of severe sepsis and septic shock.

              Despite abundant experimental studies of biomarker patterns in early severe sepsis and septic shock, human data are few. Further, the impact of the severity of global tissue hypoxia resulting from resuscitative strategies on these early biomarker patterns remains unknown. The temporal patterns of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, caspase-3, and interleukin-8 were serially examined over the first 72 hrs of hospitalization after early hemodynamic optimization strategies of early goal-directed vs. standard therapy for severe sepsis and septic shock patients. The relationship of these biomarker patterns to each hemodynamic optimization strategy, severity of global tissue hypoxia (reflected by lactate and central venous oxygen saturation), organ dysfunction, and mortality were examined. Abnormal biomarker levels were present upon hospital presentation and modulated to distinct patterns within 3 hrs based on the hemodynamic optimization strategy. The temporal expression of these patterns over 72 hrs was significantly associated with the severity of global tissue hypoxia, organ dysfunction, and mortality. In early severe sepsis and septic shock, within the first 3 hrs of hospital presentation, distinct biomarker patterns emerge in response to hemodynamic optimization strategies. A significant association exists between temporal biomarker patterns in the first 72 hrs, severity of global tissue hypoxia, organ dysfunction, and mortality. These findings identify global tissue hypoxia as an important contributor to the early inflammatory response and support the role of hemodynamic optimization in supplementing other established therapies during this diagnostic and therapeutic "window of opportunity."
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2014
                December 2014
                23 October 2014
                : 128
                : 1-2
                : 57-60
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Renal Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, and bSchool of Graduate Entry Medicine and Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                Author notes
                *Dr. Nicholas M. Selby, Department of Renal Medicine, Royal Derby Hospital, Uttoxeter Road, Derby DE22 3NE (UK), E-Mail nick.selby@nhs.net
                Article
                362557 Nephron Clin Pract 2014;128:57-60
                10.1159/000362557
                25342499
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Original Paper

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