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      Global Trends in Marine Plankton Diversity across Kingdoms of Life


      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 9 , 15 , 9 , 5 , 4 , 11 , 5 , 16 , 17 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 4 , 1 , 4 , 14 , 20 , 2 , 21 , 22 , Tara Oceans Coordinators, 17 , 23 , 5 , 3 , 14 , 9 , 8 , 3 , 14 , 3 , 4 , 11 , 24 , 25 , 15 , 3 , 26 , 2 , 3 , 23 , 3 , 14 , 3 , 4 , 1 , 3 , 27 , , 1 , ∗∗


      Cell Press

      plankton functional groups, macroecology, latitudinal diversity gradient, temperature, climate warming, Tara Oceans, trans-kingdom diversity, high-throughput sequencing, high-throughput imaging

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          The ocean is home to myriad small planktonic organisms that underpin the functioning of marine ecosystems. However, their spatial patterns of diversity and the underlying drivers remain poorly known, precluding projections of their responses to global changes. Here we investigate the latitudinal gradients and global predictors of plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades using both molecular and imaging data from Tara Oceans. We show a decline of diversity for most planktonic groups toward the poles, mainly driven by decreasing ocean temperatures. Projections into the future suggest that severe warming of the surface ocean by the end of the 21 st century could lead to tropicalization of the diversity of most planktonic groups in temperate and polar regions. These changes may have multiple consequences for marine ecosystem functioning and services and are expected to be particularly significant in key areas for carbon sequestration, fisheries, and marine conservation.

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          • Most epipelagic planktonic groups exhibit a poleward decline of diversity

          • No latitudinal diversity gradient was observed below the photic zone

          • Temperature emerges as the best predictor of epipelagic plankton diversity

          • Global warming may increase plankton diversity, particularly at high latitudes


          The drivers of ocean plankton diversity across archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, and major virus clades are inferred from both molecular and imaging data acquired by the Tara Oceans project and used to predict the effects of severe warming of the surface ocean on this critical ecosystem by the end of the 21 st century.

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          Most cited references 85

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          Impact of climate change on marine pelagic phenology and trophic mismatch.

          Phenology, the study of annually recurring life cycle events such as the timing of migrations and flowering, can provide particularly sensitive indicators of climate change. Changes in phenology may be important to ecosystem function because the level of response to climate change may vary across functional groups and multiple trophic levels. The decoupling of phenological relationships will have important ramifications for trophic interactions, altering food-web structures and leading to eventual ecosystem-level changes. Temperate marine environments may be particularly vulnerable to these changes because the recruitment success of higher trophic levels is highly dependent on synchronization with pulsed planktonic production. Using long-term data of 66 plankton taxa during the period from 1958 to 2002, we investigated whether climate warming signals are emergent across all trophic levels and functional groups within an ecological community. Here we show that not only is the marine pelagic community responding to climate changes, but also that the level of response differs throughout the community and the seasonal cycle, leading to a mismatch between trophic levels and functional groups.
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            The Paradox of the Plankton

             G. Hutchinson (1961)
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              Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems.

              In marine ecosystems, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel ecosystems. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar ecosystems to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the California Current, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall ecosystem functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.

                Author and article information

                Cell Press
                14 November 2019
                14 November 2019
                : 179
                : 5
                : 1084-1097.e21
                [1 ]Institut de Biologie de l’École Normale Supérieure (IBENS), École Normale Supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Université Paris, 75005 Paris, France
                [2 ]Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Station Biologique de Roscoff, AD2M, UMR 7144, 29680 Roscoff, France
                [3 ]Research Federation for the Study of Global Ocean Systems Ecology and Evolution, FR2022/Tara Oceans GOSEE, 3 rue Michel-Ange, 75016 Paris, France
                [4 ]Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 7093, Institut de la Mer de Villefranche-sur-Mer, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
                [5 ]Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
                [6 ]Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
                [7 ]Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
                [8 ]Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan
                [9 ]Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM)–CSIC, Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49 Barcelona E08003, Spain
                [10 ]Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia
                [11 ]Department of Microbiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                [12 ]CIRAD, UMR BGPI, 34398, Montpellier, France
                [13 ]BGPI, Université Montpellier, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France
                [14 ]Génomique Métabolique, Genoscope, Institut de Biologie François Jacob, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), CNRS, Université Évry, Université Paris-Saclay, Évry, France
                [15 ]Department of Biology, Institute of Microbiology and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 4, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland
                [16 ]Genoscope, Institut de Biologie François-Jacob, Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (CEA), Université Paris-Saclay, Évry, France
                [17 ]Takuvik Joint International Laboratory (UMI3376), Université Laval (Canada) – CNRS (France), Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
                [18 ]Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr. 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
                [19 ]Directors’ Research European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstr. 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
                [20 ]Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 36 Nakhimovsky Prosp., 117997 Moscow, Russia
                [21 ]MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
                [22 ]PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
                [23 ]School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
                [24 ]Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
                [25 ]Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
                [26 ]LMD/IPSL, ENS, PSL Research University, École Polytechnique, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Paris, France
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author cbowler@ 123456biologie.ens.fr
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author lucie@ 123456zinger.fr

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                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).



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