Orthoptera are an important biological component of grasslands as a crucial link in the food chain. Grazing, either by wild animals or livestock for human food production, exerts considerable influence on the Orthoptera of grasslands. For example, grazing prevents succession of open grasslands to scrub and forest, creates heterogeneity in sward height, and provides patches of bare earth through the action of livestock hooves breaking the vegetative cover. Grazing may also interact with other forms of grassland management such as burning to produce quite complex interactions which vary greatly between regions and Orthoptera species. Threats to grassland Orthoptera include overgrazing; conversely, abandonment of grazing can lead to the loss of open habitats vital to many species. It is important to have ungrazed areas to provide refuges for species negatively affected by grazing. Rotational management – moving domestic livestock between different pastures – will also allow a range of sward structures to develop over a landscape. The over-arching principle for grazing management should be to establish a heterogeneous sward with a range of sward heights and bare earth for oviposition/basking. In more extensive systems, patches of scrub can form habitat of woody vegetation for species such as bush crickets. The greatest diversity of habitats should provide the highest species richness.