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      Research Lumbar Punctures among African Americans and Caucasians: Perception Predicts Experience

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          African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants’ procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further assure participants and reduce complication rates.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress.

          There is evidence that psychological stress adversely affects the immune system. We have investigated the effects of such stress, caused by caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease, on wound healing. We studied 13 women caring for demented relatives (mean age 62.3 [SE 2.3] years) and 13 controls matched for age (60.4 [2.8] years) and family income. All subjects underwent a 3.5 mm punch biopsy wound. Healing was assessed by photography of the wound and the response to hydrogen peroxide (healing was defined as no foaming). Wound healing took significantly longer in caregivers than in controls (48.7 [2.9] vs 39.3 [3.0] days, p < 0.05). Peripheral-blood leucocytes from caregivers produced significantly less interleukin-1 beta mRNA in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation than did controls' cells. Stress-related defects in wound repair could have important clinical implications, for instance for recovery from surgery.
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            Clinical Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: progress and plans.

            The Clinical Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has provided clinical, operational, and data management support to ADNI since its inception. This article reviews the activities and accomplishments of the core in support of ADNI aims. These include the enrollment and follow-up of more than 800 subjects in the three original cohorts: healthy controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (now referred to as late MCI, or LMCI), and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the first phase of ADNI (ADNI 1), with baseline longitudinal, clinical, and cognitive assessments. These data, when combined with genetic, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid measures, have provided important insights into the neurobiology of the AD spectrum. Furthermore, these data have facilitated the development of novel clinical trial designs. ADNI has recently been extended with funding from an NIH Grand Opportunities (GO) award, and the new ADNI GO phase has been launched; this includes the enrollment of a new cohort, called early MCI, with milder episodic memory impairment than the LMCI group. An application for a further 5 years of ADNI funding (ADNI 2) was recently submitted. This funding would support ongoing follow-up of the original ADNI 1 and ADNI GO cohorts, as well as additional recruitment into all categories. The resulting data would provide valuable data on the earliest stages of AD, and support the development of interventions in these critically important populations. Copyright 2010 The Alzheimer
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              Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion.

              Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic and its release is induced by stress. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories. Here we show that haplotype-driven NPY expression predicts brain responses to emotional and stress challenges and also inversely correlates with trait anxiety. NPY haplotypes predicted levels of NPY messenger RNA in post-mortem brain and lymphoblasts, and levels of plasma NPY. Lower haplotype-driven NPY expression predicted higher emotion-induced activation of the amygdala, as well as diminished resiliency as assessed by pain/stress-induced activations of endogenous opioid neurotransmission in various brain regions. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs16147) located in the promoter region alters NPY expression in vitro and seems to account for more than half of the variation in expression in vivo. These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases.

                Author and article information

                1Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA
                2Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA
                3Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, GA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Shin Murakami, Touro University California, USA

                Reviewed by: Richard Camicioli, McGill University, Canada; Magda Tsolaki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

                *Correspondence: William T. Hu wthu@
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front. Aging Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                02 December 2016
                : 8
                Copyright © 2016 Howell, Parker, Watts, Kollhoff, Tsvetkova and Hu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution and reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 7, Words: 4907
                Funded by: National Institute on Aging 10.13039/100000049
                Award ID: AG43885
                Award ID: AG42856
                Award ID: AG25688
                Original Research


                alzheimer’s disease, cerebrospinal fluid, health disparity


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