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      MANAGEMENT OF MAIZE STOVER WITH UNDERDOSES RATES OF GLYPHOSATE APPLICATIONS IN NO-TILLAGE Translated title: Manejo da Palhada do Milho com Aplicações de Subdoses de Glyphosate em Plantio Direto

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACTGlyphosate has significant effects on the growth and development of plants when in underdoses. This work was developed to verify the effect of the application of glyphosate in underdoses in lignin synthesis and consequently decomposition of maize stover. Two experiments were conducted; the first one in a greenhouse for underdoses adjustments and the second one in the production area. The experimental design of the first trial was completely randomized with four replications. The treatments consisted in the application of the underdoses: 0, 25, 50 and 100 g ha-1 of glyphosate. In the production area, the experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, in underdoses: 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 g ha-1. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The underdoses of 25 g a.e. ha-1in a greenhouse promoted 36% increase in productivity of stover, in addition to increasing the lignin content in 16%, with no change in the unwanted growth of maize plants. In the production area, the concentration of 12.5 g a.e. ha-1 of glyphosate reduced the lignin content and the other underdoses have not changed this feature in maize plants. None of the underdoses affected the height and biomass produced by the maize plants. The highest underdose tested promoted acceleration in the decomposition of maize stover.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMOO glyphosate apresenta importantes efeitos sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas quando aplicado em subdoses. Assim, este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da aplicação de subdoses do glyphosate na síntese de lignina e, consequentemente, na decomposição da palhada de milho. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo o primeiro em casa de vegetação e o segundo em área de produção. O delineamento experimental para o primeiro experimento foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação das subdoses: 0, 25, 50 e 100 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate. Na área de produção, o delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições, e as subdoses utilizadas foram: 0, 12,5, 25 e 50 g e.a. ha-1. Os resultados foram submetidos a análise de variância e ajuste de regressão. A subdose de 25 g e.a. ha-1 em casa de vegetação promoveu aumento de 36% na biomassa das plantas, além de elevar o teor da lignina em 16%, sem alteração na altura das plantas de milho. Na área de produção, a concentração de 12,5 g e.a. ha-1 de glyphosate reduziu o teor de lignina, e as demais subdoses não alteraram essa característica nas plantas de milho. Nenhuma das subdoses afetou a altura e biomassa produzida pelas plantas de milho. A maior subdose testada promoveu aceleração na decomposição da palhada de milho.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Genome-wide characterization of the lignification toolbox in Arabidopsis.

          Lignin, one of the most abundant terrestrial biopolymers, is indispensable for plant structure and defense. With the availability of the full genome sequence, large collections of insertion mutants, and functional genomics tools, Arabidopsis constitutes an excellent model system to profoundly unravel the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. In a genome-wide bioinformatics survey of the Arabidopsis genome, 34 candidate genes were annotated that encode genes homologous to the 10 presently known enzymes of the monolignol biosynthesis pathway, nine of which have not been described before. By combining evolutionary analysis of these 10 gene families with in silico promoter analysis and expression data (from a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis on an extensive tissue panel, mining of expressed sequence tags from publicly available resources, and assembling expression data from literature), 12 genes could be pinpointed as the most likely candidates for a role in vascular lignification. Furthermore, a possible novel link was detected between the presence of the AC regulatory promoter element and the biosynthesis of G lignin during vascular development. Together, these data describe the full complement of monolignol biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis, provide a unified nomenclature, and serve as a basis for further functional studies.
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            Introduction to soil microbiology

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              Overexpression of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) dirigent1 gene enhances lignification that blocks the spread of Verticillium dahliae.

              Dirigent super-family abounds throughout the plant kingdom, especially vascular plants. To elucidate the function of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) DIR genes in lignification, two cDNAs (designated GhDIR1 and GhDIR2) encoding putative dirigent proteins were isolated from cotton cDNA libraries. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that GhDIR1 transcript was preferentially accumulated in cotton hypocotyls, whereas GhDIR2 was predominantly expressed in cotton fibers. Overexpression of GhDIR1 gene resulted in an increase in lignin content in transgenic cotton plants, compared with that of wild type. Histochemical assay revealed that the transgenic plants displayed more widespread lignification than that of wild type in epidermis and vascular bundle. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton plants displayed more tolerance to the infection of Verticillium dahliae. Our data suggest that GhDIR1 may be involved in cotton lignification which can block the spread of fungal pathogen V. dahliae.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                pd
                Planta Daninha
                Planta daninha
                Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas (Viçosa )
                1806-9681
                September 2015
                : 33
                : 3
                : 543-550
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Paraná Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S0100-83582015000300543
                10.1590/S0100-83582015000300016
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PLANT SCIENCES

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