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      Loss of Wwox Causes Defective Development of Cerebral Cortex with Hypomyelination in a Rat Model of Lethal Dwarfism with Epilepsy

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          Abstract

          WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (Wwox) is a putative tumor suppressor. Several germline mutations of Wwox have been associated with infant neurological disorders characterized by epilepsy, growth retardation, and early death. Less is known, however, about the pathological link between Wwox mutations and these disorders or the physiological role of Wwox in brain development. In this study, we examined age-related expression and histological localization of Wwox in forebrains as well as the effects of loss of function mutations in the Wwox gene in the immature cortex of a rat model of lethal dwarfism with epilepsy ( lde/lde). Immunostaining revealed that Wwox is expressed in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. lde/lde cortices were characterized by a reduction in neurite growth without a reduced number of neurons, severe reduction in myelination with a reduced number of mature oligodendrocytes, and a reduction in cell populations of astrocytes and microglia. These results indicate that Wwox is essential for normal development of neurons and glial cells in the cerebral cortex.

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          Most cited references55

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          NeuN, a neuronal specific nuclear protein in vertebrates.

          A battery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against brain cell nuclei has been generated by repeated immunizations. One of these, mAb A60, recognizes a vertebrate nervous system- and neuron-specific nuclear protein that we have named NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei). The expression of NeuN is observed in most neuronal cell types throughout the nervous system of adult mice. However, some major cell types appear devoid of immunoreactivity including cerebellar Purkinje cells, olfactory bulb mitral cells, and retinal photoreceptor cells. NeuN can also be detected in neurons in primary cerebellar cultures and in retinoic acid-stimulated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemically detectable NeuN protein first appears at developmental timepoints which correspond with the withdrawal of the neuron from the cell cycle and/or with the initiation of terminal differentiation of the neuron. NeuN is a soluble nuclear protein, appears as 3 bands (46-48 x 10(3) M(r)) on immunoblots, and binds to DNA in vitro. The mAb crossreacts immunohistochemically with nervous tissue from rats, chicks, humans, and salamanders. This mAb and the protein recognized by it serve as an excellent marker for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems in both the embryo and adult, and the protein may be important in the determination of neuronal phenotype.
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            Oligodendrocyte, Astrocyte, and Microglia Crosstalk in Myelin Development, Damage, and Repair

            Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating glia of the central nervous system. Myelination of axons allows rapid saltatory conduction of nerve impulses and contributes to axonal integrity. Devastating neurological deficits caused by demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, illustrate well the importance of the process. In this review, we focus on the positive and negative interactions between oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia during developmental myelination and remyelination. Even though many lines of evidence support a crucial role for glia crosstalk during these processes, the nature of such interactions is often neglected when designing therapeutics for repair of demyelinated lesions. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell communication and how they influence oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination is fundamental to uncover novel therapeutic strategies for myelin repair.
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              Microglia-specific localisation of a novel calcium binding protein, Iba1

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                23 July 2019
                July 2019
                : 20
                : 14
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8602, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hiroetsu@ 123456nvlu.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-422-31-4131
                Article
                ijms-20-03596
                10.3390/ijms20143596
                6678113
                31340538
                5e818ec7-a3e3-4e72-afa3-7979e1a19e90
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology
                wwox,cerebral cortex,neuron,oligodendrocyte
                Molecular biology
                wwox, cerebral cortex, neuron, oligodendrocyte

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