11
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Sleep Spindles: Mechanisms and Functions

      1 , 1

      Physiological Reviews

      American Physiological Society

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Sleep spindles are burstlike signals in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of the sleeping mammalian brain and electrical surface correlates of neuronal oscillations in thalamus. As one of the most inheritable sleep EEG signatures, sleep spindles probably reflect the strength and malleability of thalamocortical circuits that underlie individual cognitive profiles. We review the characteristics, organization, regulation, and origins of sleep spindles and their implication in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and its functions, focusing on human and rodent. Spatially, sleep spindle-related neuronal activity appears on scales ranging from small thalamic circuits to functional cortical areas, and generates a cortical state favoring intracortical plasticity while limiting cortical output. Temporally, sleep spindles are discrete events, part of a continuous power band, and elements grouped on an infraslow time scale over which NREMS alternates between continuity and fragility. We synthesize diverse and seemingly unlinked functions of sleep spindles for sleep architecture, sensory processing, synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and cognitive abilities into a unifying sleep spindle concept, according to which sleep spindles 1) generate neural conditions of large-scale functional connectivity and plasticity that outlast their appearance as discrete EEG events, 2) appear preferentially in thalamic circuits engaged in learning and attention-based experience during wakefulness, and 3) enable a selective reactivation and routing of wake-instated neuronal traces between brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Their fine spatiotemporal organization reflects NREMS as a physiological state coordinated over brain and body and may indicate, if not anticipate and ultimately differentiate, pathologies in sleep and neurodevelopmental, -degenerative, and -psychiatric conditions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 575

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Electrophysiological signatures of resting state networks in the human brain.

          Functional neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have documented a dynamic baseline of intrinsic (not stimulus- or task-evoked) brain activity during resting wakefulness. This baseline is characterized by slow (<0.1 Hz) fluctuations of functional imaging signals that are topographically organized in discrete brain networks, and by much faster (1-80 Hz) electrical oscillations. To investigate the relationship between hemodynamic and electrical oscillations, we have adopted a completely data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using independent component analysis on the fMRI data, we identified six widely distributed resting state networks. The blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations associated with each network were correlated with the EEG power variations of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms. Each functional network was characterized by a specific electrophysiological signature that involved the combination of different brain rhythms. Moreover, the joint EEG/fMRI analysis afforded a finer physiological fractionation of brain networks in the resting human brain. This result supports for the first time in humans the coalescence of several brain rhythms within large-scale brain networks as suggested by biophysical studies.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Green fluorescent protein expression and colocalization with calretinin, parvalbumin, and somatostatin in the GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse.

            Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the central nervous system regulate the activity of other neurons and play a crucial role in information processing. To assist an advance in the research of GABAergic neurons, here we produced two lines of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescence protein (GAD67-GFP) knock-in mouse. The distribution pattern of GFP-positive somata was the same as that of the GAD67 in situ hybridization signal in the central nervous system. We encountered neither any apparent ectopic GFP expression in GAD67-negative cells nor any apparent lack of GFP expression in GAD67-positive neurons in the two GAD67-GFP knock-in mouse lines. The timing of GFP expression also paralleled that of GAD67 expression. Hence, we constructed a map of GFP distribution in the knock-in mouse brain. Moreover, we used the knock-in mice to investigate the colocalization of GFP with NeuN, calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and somatostatin (SS) in the frontal motor cortex. The proportion of GFP-positive cells among NeuN-positive cells (neocortical neurons) was approximately 19.5%. All the CR-, PV-, and SS-positive cells appeared positive for GFP. The CR-, PV, and SS-positive cells emitted GFP fluorescence at various intensities characteristics to them. The proportions of CR-, PV-, and SS-positive cells among GFP-positive cells were 13.9%, 40.1%, and 23.4%, respectively. Thus, the three subtypes of GABAergic neurons accounted for 77.4% of the GFP-positive cells. They accounted for 6.5% in layer I. In accord with unidentified GFP-positive cells, many medium-sized spherical somata emitting intense GFP fluorescence were observed in layer I. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Molecular physiology of low-voltage-activated t-type calcium channels.

              T-type Ca2+ channels were originally called low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels because they can be activated by small depolarizations of the plasma membrane. In many neurons Ca2+ influx through LVA channels triggers low-threshold spikes, which in turn triggers a burst of action potentials mediated by Na+ channels. Burst firing is thought to play an important role in the synchronized activity of the thalamus observed in absence epilepsy, but may also underlie a wider range of thalamocortical dysrhythmias. In addition to a pacemaker role, Ca2+ entry via T-type channels can directly regulate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, which is an important second messenger for a variety of cellular processes. Molecular cloning revealed the existence of three T-type channel genes. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a similar four-repeat structure to that found in high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channels, and Na+ channels, indicating that they are evolutionarily related. Hence, the alpha1-subunits of T-type channels are now designated Cav3. Although mRNAs for all three Cav3 subtypes are expressed in brain, they vary in terms of their peripheral expression, with Cav3.2 showing the widest expression. The electrophysiological activities of recombinant Cav3 channels are very similar to native T-type currents and can be differentiated from HVA channels by their activation at lower voltages, faster inactivation, slower deactivation, and smaller conductance of Ba2+. The Cav3 subtypes can be differentiated by their kinetics and sensitivity to block by Ni2+. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive description of T-type currents, their distribution, regulation, pharmacology, and cloning.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiological Reviews
                Physiological Reviews
                American Physiological Society
                0031-9333
                1522-1210
                April 01 2020
                April 01 2020
                : 100
                : 2
                : 805-868
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Fundamental Neurosciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
                Article
                10.1152/physrev.00042.2018
                © 2020

                Comments

                Comment on this article