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      Nutrition for the Eye: Different Susceptibility of the Retina and the Lacrimal Gland to Dietary Omega-6 and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Incorporation

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          Abstract

          The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Male Wistar rats were fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% γ-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA and GLA for 3 months. Lipids were extracted from plasma phospholipids, retina and exorbital lacrimal gland, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA increased ω3 PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids as well as in the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland. By contrast, GLA supplementation favored ω6 PUFA incorporation, and particularly the incorporation of the end-chain ω6 product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), into all tissues. Supplementation with EPA, DHA and GLA increased the levels of DHA, EPA and dihomo-GLA (dGLA), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) was unchanged and DPA decreased in the retina and the lacrimal gland. The ability of both tissues to incorporate PUFAs from blood was evaluated. The results showed that the retina was more selective than the lacrimal gland for EPA. In spite of the different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary PUFAs, these results suggest that the concomitant use of dietary ω3 and ω6 PUFAs may be useful in modulating inflammation in both tissues.

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          Most cited references22

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          The role of the lacrimal functional unit in the pathophysiology of dry eye.

          The majority of dry eye symptoms are due to a chronic inflammation of the lacrimal functional unit resulting in a loss of tear film integrity and normal function. This leads to a reduction in the ability of the ocular surface to respond to environmental challenges. The underlying cause of tear film dysfunction is the alteration of tear aqueous, mucin, and lipid components. This may result from a systemic autoimmune disease or a local autoimmune event. A lack of systemic androgen support to the lacrimal gland has been shown to be a facilitative factor in the initiation of this type of pathophysiology. Tear secretion is controlled by the lacrimal functional unit consisting of the ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva, accessory lacrimal glands, and meibomian glands), the main lacrimal gland and the interconnecting innervation. If any portion of this functional unit is compromised, lacrimal gland support to the ocular surface is impeded. Factors such as neurogenic inflammation and T cell involvement in the disease pathogenesis as well as newly developed animal models of ocular surface inflammation are discussed.
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            • Article: not found

            Chemistry and metabolism of lipids in the vertebrate retina

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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Changes in the tear film and ocular surface from dry eye syndrome.

              Dry eye syndrome (DES) refers to a spectrum of ocular surface diseases with diverse and frequently multiple aetiologies. The common feature of the various manifestations of DES is an abnormal tear film. Tear film abnormalities associated with DES are tear deficiency, owing to insufficient supply or excessive loss, and anomalous tear composition. These categorizations are artificial, as in reality both often coexist. DES disrupts the homeostasis of the tear film with its adjacent structures, and adversely affects its ability to perform essential functions such as supporting the ocular surface epithelium and preventing microbial invasion. In addition, whatever the initial trigger, moderate and severe DES is characterized by ocular surface inflammation, which in turn becomes the cause and consequence of cell damage, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of deterioration. Progress has been made in our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of DES, and these advances have encouraged a proliferation of therapeutic options. This article aims to amalgamate prevailing ideas of DES development, and to assist in that, relevant aspects of the structure, function, and production of the tear film are reviewed. Additionally, a synopsis of therapeutic strategies for DES is presented, detailing treatments currently available, and those in development.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2009
                June 2009
                15 May 2009
                : 41
                : 4
                : 216-224
                Affiliations
                aUMR1129 FLAVIC, Eye and Nutrition Research Group, INRA, ENESAD, University of Burgundy, and bDepartment of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Dijon, France
                Article
                217726 Ophthalmic Res 2009;41:216–224
                10.1159/000217726
                19451735
                5e909cc9-28ef-4da0-b876-65401f29c143
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 25 July 2007
                : 20 February 2008
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 40, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Lacrimal gland,Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids,Retina,Rat

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